parochial school

(redirected from Faith-based school)
Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus.

parochial school

(pərō`kēəl), school supported by a religious body. In the United States such schools are maintained by a number of religious groups, including Lutherans, Seventh-day Adventists, Orthodox Jews, Muslims, and evangelical Protestant churches. However, the most numerous are those attached to Roman Catholic parishes.

The Catholic parochial school system developed in the 19th cent. as a response to what was then seen as Protestant domination of the public school system in the United States. A group of American bishops met in the Third Plenary Council of Baltimore (1884) to plan for the establishment of a comprehensive parochial school system. Local churches were directed to establish elementary schools for the education of the parish children. In time a number of secondary, or high, schools, supported by a diocese and encompassing a number of parish schools, were also established. Both the elementary and secondary schools developed a religious curriculum emphasizing Catholic doctrine along with a secular curriculum very similar to that of the public schools.

During the middle of the 20th cent., much of parochial education's traditional structure began to change. The ecumenical spirit generated by the Second Vatican Council (1962–65) convinced many Roman Catholics that the religious education of the parochial school was too separatist. Moreover, parochial schools suffered from the criticism that public schools provided a better secular education at less cost. Because of such criticisms, parochial schools were forced to hire lay teachers, who came to account for an increasingly larger proportion of the faculty. Beginning in the mid-1960s, Roman Catholic schools began to encounter severe financial problems; many parish schools were closed and the Catholic school population dropped sharply.

Although parochial schools still account for the bulk of the attendance at private schools in the United States, their loss of students and their financial difficulties have forced them to seek aid from public sources, most often in the form of tax subsidies or credits for the parents of parochial school children. Under the "child-benefit theory," government aid has been provided to the students of parochial schools, rather than to the schools themselves; by means of this compromise, the constitutional provision against aid to religious institutions is circumvented. In a number of cases, however, the U.S. Supreme Court has decided against state laws providing such aid to parochial schools, claiming that they violate the principle of separation between church and state.

Bibliography

See N. McCluskey, Catholic Education Faces Its Future (1968); R. Shaw and R. Hurley, ed., Trends and Issues in Catholic Education (1969); H. Buetow, Of Singular Benefit: The Story of U.S. Catholic Education (1970).

References in periodicals archive ?
For example, basketball legend David Robinson founded a faith-based school, the Carver Academy, in San Antonio in 2001.
Families are attracted to faith-based schools for several reasons: preservation of cultural identity, development of religious ethos, and freedom from institutionalized racism.
"We don't want to lose sight of the fact that we've got a fantastic opportunty to fund a new PS29m faith-based school," she said.
Thus, "within a faith-based school, individuals may feel a greater sense of association with religious identity than in a community school." (61)
I sympathize with the growing number who see Ontario's continued funding of one faith-based school system, the RC Separate, to the exclusion of all other faith-based schools, as profoundly unfair particularly in a multicultural society that professes to value diversity (within a wider common framework to be sure) and in light of a Charter of Rights and Freedoms (1982) that re-affirms the principle of fairness.
"We are a faith-based school, emphasizing positive character education, an excellent college prep curriculum, and a small, nurturing learning community," says its principal Josue Rosado.
The article presents one strand of inquiry drawn from the dissertation, using data from his ethnographic study of Saints Joachim and Ann Catholic School (J&A), a parish school in Chicago, to investigate the question "To what extent do teachers in this faith-based school hold high expectations for academic achievement for their students?" As he notes in the article, maintaining high expectations for students is a key tenet of culturally responsive pedagogy, a practice linked to valuing the knowledge students bring with them to school and treating students as experts.
private school voucher program, saying that it had paved the way for students to "transfer from underperforming public schools to a private or faith-based school of their choice." (Some 80 students at Holy Redeemer get federally funded vouchers.)
Although by the beginning of September, John Tory's faith-based school proposal had been discussed in the media since the beginning of June, no one, to our knowledge, had even broached the problem secretly on everybody's mind: Is it wise to provide for equal financing of Muslim schools when Muslim fanatics and intolerance of Western values are there for everybody to see?
"The present proposal has been put forward in a manner which, I believe, fails to take sufficient account of the wide range of parental concerns expressed and the views put forward by the Diocese about the importance of this school as a faith-based school."
The system recognises the right to send children to Welsh medium schools and grudgingly accepts the right to send a child to a faith-based school.