Falange

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Related to Falangism: Falange Española

Falange

(fälän`hā) [Span.,=phalanx], Spanish political party, founded in 1933 as Falange Española by José António Primo de Rivera, son of the former Spanish dictator. Professing generally the principles of fascismfascism
, totalitarian philosophy of government that glorifies the state and nation and assigns to the state control over every aspect of national life. The name was first used by the party started by Benito Mussolini, who ruled Italy from 1922 until the Italian defeat in World
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, the Falange distinguished itself from other fascist groups by its great emphasis on national tradition, particularly the imperial and Renaissance Christian traditions of Spain. The Falange militia joined the Insurgents in the Spanish civil war of 1936–39. Merged with the Carlist militia by Francisco FrancoFranco, Francisco
, 1892–1975, Spanish general and caudillo [leader]. He became a general at the age of 32 after commanding the Spanish Foreign Legion in Morocco.
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 in 1937, the organization was renamed Falange Española Tradicionalista and was made the official party of the Nationalist state. It was a much less independent force than Italian fascism, however, and was exploited and manipulated by Franco. From the middle of World War II on, the party grew steadily weaker, and Franco sought to make it a kind of bureaucratic nationalist front. By the early 1970s it had virtually no influence.

Bibliography

See study by S. G. Payne (1961).

References in periodicals archive ?
Galarza, who had been instrumental in the organization of the military uprising of 1936, was a monarchist and very unsympathetic to Falangism. After a meeting between Primo de Rivera and other leaders of the Falange, her radical faction decided to oppose Franco on this issue.
It is doubtful whether he would consider the huge advances in the health of the Spanish population under the rule of Franco -- far greater and more durable than anything achieved under Lenin or Stalin--as an argument for the adoption of Falangism. When comparing Sweden and the United States from the point of view of life expectancy, he omits to mention that the differences are comparatively small and unimportant or that the populations of the two countries are very different and therefore not easily comparable: one being small and homogeneous, the other large and heterogeneous.
John of Jerusalem, with 10,0000 to 13,000 members worldwide and 1,500 to 2,500 in the United States, had European members linked to Nazism, Italian fascism and Spanish Falangism.