fallacy

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fallacy,

in logic, a term used to characterize an invalid argument. Strictly speaking, it refers only to the transition from a set of premises to a conclusion, and is distinguished from falsity, a value attributed to a single statement. The laws of syllogisms were systematically elaborated by Aristotle, and for an argument to be valid, it must adhere to all the laws; to be fallacious, it need only break one (see syllogismsyllogism,
a mode of argument that forms the core of the body of Western logical thought. Aristotle defined syllogistic logic, and his formulations were thought to be the final word in logic; they underwent only minor revisions in the subsequent 2,200 years.
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). The term fallacy has come to be used in a somewhat wider sense than the purely formal one. Informal fallacies are said to occur when statements are ambiguous or vague as to the logical form they represent, or when a multiplicity of meaning is present and the validity of the argument depends on switching meanings of a word or a phrase in midstream.
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fallacy

Logic an error in reasoning that renders an argument logically invalid
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
Politicians/Leaders in times of war, in order to shape public opinion and to block criticism, present fallacious arguments. This paper discusses the fallacious argumentative strategy of G.
Fallacious arguments are not to be disregarded only because they have been found, over time, to lead to bad decisions but also because, fundamentally, they work by violating implicit norms of rational argument and, thus, short-circuit the process of rational critical debate.
(5) Not only is this a very bizarre and obviously fallacious argument, but it also directly contradicts Rand's definition of value as "that which one acts to gain and/or keep." (6) Rand's view of value explicitly does include a person acting to gain what he doesn't already have.
Similarly fallacious arguments have been made regarding the predilection of Roman Catholic clergy to sexual abuse children.
(For a grouping of the many types of fallacious arguments made by taxpayers, see the IRS website [http://www.irs.gov/pub/irs-utl/friv_tax.pdf].) For example, the IRS noted that taxpayers contend that they do not have to pay taxes "because the filing of a tax return is voluntary." Along with this contention on the "voluntary nature of the federal income tax system" the IRS listed the following fallacious taxpayer arguments under the "voluntary" category:
China's UN envoy Li Baodong responded that "the Japanese delegate once again brazenly distorted history, resorting to spurious fallacious arguments that defy all reason and logic to justify their aggression of Chinese territory." "The Japanese government still clings to its obsolete colonial mindset," Li added.
For, not all fallacious arguments really are persuasive--at least not in the sense needed here.
This is an erroneous theory based on fallacious arguments that the economy can shift people's identity through economic and infrastructure developments.
In this case, my detractors are using fallacious arguments, lies.
Sheikh defend his position, resorting sometimes to fallacious arguments like when he says that 2M represents and defends the Moroccan culture, what is most outraging, is to see some fellow Moroccans arguing that the Minister has no right to reduce the ubiquitous presence of French on Moroccan media.