Family Compact


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Family Compact,

several alliances between France and Spain in the form of agreements between the French and Spanish branches of the Bourbon family. The first of the three compacts, the Treaty of the Escorial (1733), was continued and extended by the second agreement (1743). The third, and most important, of the treaties was that of 1761. Both England and France sought Spanish support in the Seven Years WarSeven Years War,
1756–63, worldwide war fought in Europe, North America, and India between France, Austria, Russia, Saxony, Sweden, and (after 1762) Spain on the one side and Prussia, Great Britain, and Hanover on the other.
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, but England's attack on Spanish colonies and shipping alienated Charles III of Spain and the king rejected the English offer in favor of the proposal made by the French minister, the duc de Choiseul. The pact, which dealt with political and commercial relations and with the entry of Spain into the war, also included the Bourbon ruler of the Two Sicilies and the Infante Philip, duke of Parma. Spain entered the war (1762) but was of small use to France; the economic and political provisions of the pact proved more enduring than the military ones.

Family Compact,

name popularly applied to a small, powerful group of men who dominated the government of Upper Canada (Ontario) from the closing years of the 18th cent. to the beginnings of responsible government under the Baldwin–LaFontaine Reform ministry (1848–51). The group, some of whose members belonged to the same family and most of whom were men of wealth, controlled the legislative and executive councils, had a virtual monopoly of political office, and strongly influenced banking, education, the issuing of land grants, the affairs of the Anglican church in Canada, and the courts. New settlers from Great Britain and the United States, finding themselves denied political opportunity, were drawn into an opposition movement, which in time became the Reform party. Religious differences embittered the struggle, since the Family Compact (the term first appeared c.1828) was composed almost entirely of members of the Church of England. The Château Clique was the name given to a similar powerful group in French Lower Canada.

Bibliography

See G. M. Craig, Upper Canada: The Formative Years, 1784–1841 (1963).

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References in periodicals archive ?
The term "Family Compact" entered usage in 1828, when Marshall Spring Bidwell used it in a letter to William Warren Baldwin, and was popularized by the 1839 Durham report.
Schrauwers also explores the nature of debt in Upper Canada, showing how the Family Compact used the threat of imprisonment to control the populace.
With a British designer and the made-on-these-shores tag, Vauxhall is confident its latest family compact will be the car which finally topples the Focus from its place at the top of the UK's best sellers list.
Elected to the Assembly and ejected three times--first when York was incorporated into the City of Toronto--he was the publisher of the muckraking Colonial Advocate, and the sworn enemy of the Family Compact, the local version of the Chateau Clique.
With a British designer and a made-in-England tag, Vauxhall is hoping its latest family compact will be the car which finally topples Ford's Focus from its customary place at the top of the UK's best sellers list.
The complaint of Mackenzie and his followers was against a powerful group called the Family Compact. These well-to-do families and wealthy merchants governed in a dictatorial manner and treated ordinary people badly.
The family compact was an interconnected system of hierarchies (p.
This group, whose leadership included Robert Thorpe, Joseph Willocks, Robert Gourlay, and, ultimately, William Lyon Mackenzie, began raising questions about taxes, land policy, the privileges of the Anglican Church and the Family Compact, appropriations, and freedom of the press.
Tory publisher-editors dedicated themselves to the support of the government and Family Compact interests, while others like William Lyon Mackenzie took up the mantle of "Reform," arguing as emphatically as possible for self-government in Canada.
Thereupon the suspended Father O'Grady began his journalistic career in earnest together with the excommunicated James King and the Canadian Correspondent, all supporting the politics of William Lyon Mackenzie against the Family Compact. O'Grady became actively involved in the reform movement and wrote the Declaration of Reformers of the City of Toronto in 1837.
At the high point of his career as a reformer William Lyon Mackenzie was criticizing the Family Compact for doing business with the corrupt Baring Brothers.
ARNOLD Clark DS franchise manager Liam Burns said: "One of the bestlooking family compact hatchbacks on the market, this feisty car offers serious driveway presence.