Persian language

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Persian language,

member of the Iranian group of the Indo-Iranian subfamily of the Indo-European family of languages (see Indo-IranianIndo-Iranian,
subfamily of the Indo-European family of languages, spoken by more than a billion people, chiefly in Afghanistan, Bangladesh, India, Iran, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka (see The Indo-European Family of Languages, table).
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 languages). The official language of Iran, it has about 38 million speakers in Iran and another 8 million in Afghanistan. Historically the Persian language falls into three periods: Old, Middle, and Modern. Old Persian is known chiefly from cuneiform inscriptions dating from the time of the Achaemenid kings of ancient Persia (6th–4th cent. B.C.). Old Persian was highly inflected, as was Avestan, which is regarded by some as a form of Old Persian and by others as a separate tongue. Avestan was the language of the sacred texts of ZoroastrianismZoroastrianism
, religion founded by Zoroaster, but with many later accretions. Scriptures

Zoroastrianism's scriptures are the Avesta or the Zend Avesta [Pahlavi avesta=law, zend=commentary].
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 that are known as the Avesta (probably composed c.7th–5th cent. B.C.). Middle Persian derives directly from Old Persian. Also called Pahlavi, Middle Persian prevailed under the Sassanid, or Sassanian, rulers of Persia (3d–7th cent. A.D.). Grammatically, much simplification of inflection took place in Middle Persian, which was recorded both in an Aramaic alphabet and in a script called Pahlavi. Middle Persian also had a noteworthy literature of Manichaean and Zoroastrian texts. The modern form of Persian evolved directly from Middle Persian and may be said to have begun in the 9th or 10th cent. A.D. It has not changed much since that date. The grammar of Modern Persian is comparatively simple. The inflection of nouns and verbs has been greatly reduced since the ancient stage of the language. A number of Arabic words were added to the vocabulary as the result of the conquest of the Persians by the Muslim Arabs in the 7th cent. A.D. Modern Persian is the medium of an old and great literature and is written in a modification of the Arabic alphabet. Modern Persian is also known as Fārsī.

Bibliography

See R. G. Kent, Old Persian (1950); A. K. S. Lambton, Persian Grammar (1971).

References in periodicals archive ?
MBC Group announced the launch of Cymbc PersiaCO its newest Free-To-Air Satellite TV channel subtitled in Farsi. The new movie channel starts broadcasting on the 9th of July 2008 at 1130 GMT / 1530 UAE and offers the best in global movies around the clock from a wide range of blockbusters of all genres such as comedy, action, drama, romance and others.
will continue selling books online via its website, which is in both English and Farsi.
Additionally, a network of highly relevant Farsi language channels enables Yahlive to have the highest retention ratio of 82% in the market.
Giving details of the MSW Transfer Stations, Al Farsi said that it would have an administration office besides technical staff.
What we developed is a better approach to controlling the hardware that already exists," Farsi continued.
We were asked to solve a problem about the spread of tiny plastic particles,' said Farsi who is pursuing Geophysics in Geology department, College of Science, Sultan Qaboos University.
The fact that the US Navy now communicates with the Iranian Navy in Farsi indicates it now has many more Farsi speakers in the region--and is able to use them to listen in on more Iranian communications, a point that should concern Fadavi.
The Iranian cultural center is offering courses in Farsi (Persian) language, computer, painting and tailoring and the classes were visited by the Iranian cultural attaches after the opening ceremony.
For five hours a week, students learn to read, write and speak in Farsi. Every two weeks, they memorize about 15 words, to enable them to make basic conversation in Farsi at the end of the two-year course.
Among the other key insights of the Ipsos Connect study on Yahlive's Farsi market penetration was that Yahlive was the top ranked operator for the fourth year in a row as a provider of Farsi channels, with a satellite market share of 68% over three years and a retention rate of viewers estimated at 87%.
The late Afghan historian Mir Sediq Farhang wrote in his memoir that swapping the word Farsi for Dari was a compromise reached by Pashtun and Farsiwan leaders in the final negotiations on the 1964 constitution of Afghanistan.
He thinks in Farsi and speaks in English and it is translated into Korean for the actor.