Federal Republic of Germany
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Soviet-German (Federal Republic of Germany) Agreements
Diplomatic relations between the USSR and the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) were established on Sept. 13, 1955. A consular treaty and an agreement on general questions of trade and navigation were concluded on Apr. 25, 1958. In the Treaty of Aug. 12, 1970, the USSR and the FRG pledged to promote the normalization of the situation in Europe, to settle disputes exclusively through peaceful means, and to refrain from the threat of force or the use of force; the parties also declared that they have no territorial claims against anyone and would not pose such claims in the future. The treaty established the principle of the inviolability of the frontiers of all European states as of the day of the signature of the treaty. In view of the bitter opposition of reactionary circles of the FRG, the treaty did not become effective until June 3, 1972.
In a communique of Sept. 19, 1971, the countries concluded that a continuous expansion of mutually advantageous ties is possible and announced an accord on creating a joint commission on economic, scientific, and technical cooperation. Several agreements were signed during summit meetings of May 18–22, 1973, including agreements on developing economic, industrial, and technical cooperation (May 19, 1973) and on cultural cooperation.
In a joint declaration of May 21, 1973, the countries noted the considerable progress that had been achieved toward the easing of tension in Europe and emphasized the importance of the treaties of the USSR, the Polish People’s Republic, and the German Democratic Republic with the FRG and of the four-power agreement on West Berlin of Sept. 3, 1971. The expansion of business relations led to the signing of long-term guidelines for the development of economic, industrial, and technical cooperation (Jan. 18, 1974) and the signing of an agreement on the further development of economic cooperation (Oct. 30, 1974).
In a joint declaration of Oct. 30, 1974, the parties stated that the treaty of 1970 remains the basis for a further improvement of relations between the USSR and the FRG. They also agreed to hold periodic consultations on questions of bilateral relations and on international problems, and they expressed their intention to increase cooperation in different fields.
E. M. ZAITSEV