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subsidy, financial assistance granted by a government or philanthropic foundation to a person or association for the purpose of promoting an enterprise considered beneficial to the public welfare. Subsidies were used in England in the later Middle Ages, when Parliament granted funds to the king to augment or replace customs and other taxes collected by royal prerogative; such early subsidies later became the means by which the power of taxation was taken from the king and lodged in Parliament. At first a nationwide levy, it became (in the reign of Charles II) a land tax levied annually without the intervention of a parliamentary vote. In France the king was able to retain his control and acquire financial powers that made him independent of any subsidy granted by the States-General. The term subsidy has had widely varied usage in the 20th and 21st cent. Subsidies may be granted to keep prices low, to maintain incomes, or to preserve employment. They are most important as grants to private corporations for performing some public service, such as to shipping companies and airlines for carrying the mail or to railroads for maintaining passenger service. These are often required where a necessary public service, particularly one that might otherwise not be profitable, is granted funds to remain in operation. In the United States, the National Railroad Passenger Corporation (Amtrak) receives federal subsidies for its intercity railway network. American cities have frequently subsidized transit companies to induce them to provide metropolitan transportation facilities for the public. Other commonly subsidized enterprises include agriculture (see agricultural subsidies), business expansion, and housing and regional development. In the United States, 5 million households received housing assistance in 1998. Medical and educational institutions are among the largest recipients of subsidies (see foundation); in 1997, for instance, federal spending in the United States paid 46% of national medical costs. Subsidies have also been granted by one country to another country to aid it in pursuing a war effort, to gain its goodwill, or to help stabilize its economy. Very similar to a subsidy is a bounty, except that it usually takes the form of a per-unit premium or reward for a service already performed.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



an allocation in the budget for the liquidation of expected losses (planovye ubytki) and for the balancing of subordinate budgets.

In capitalist systems subsidies are widely used to put capitalist enterprises in good order and to give financial assistance to war industry and nonprofit capital investment spheres (such as sectors of the infrastructure, including education, communications, and the like). Subsidies are appropriated for scientific research. Bourgeois states also use subsidies as a means of regulating the budgets of local “self-government,” which increases their dependence on the center. Subsidies are often paid to compensate the losses of monopolies in the extractive industry to continue mining deposits that would otherwise not be economically feasible and to pay farmers to reduce land under cultivation in order to support high price levels. Under imperialism, subsidies serve as additional enrichment for the financial oligarchy.

Under socialism subsidies are appropriated from the state budget for payment of expected losses of government enterprises and economic organizations that sell their basic production for prices lower than the planned cost price. Subsidies are also received by certain organizations in the nonproduction sphere, such as theaters.

The use of subsidies in the heavy industry of the USSR during the reconstruction period, the Great Patriotic War (1941-45), and the first postwar years accelerated the process of industrialization of the country and the reconstruction of sectors of the economy on a new technological basis. How-ever, the wide use of subsidies was an emergency measure, and it economically contradicted the principles of economic accountability. In 1949 wholesale prices for the production of certain sectors of heavy industry were increased. As a result, the system of subsidies was canceled in most of the sectors of the industry, though it was kept in many sectors of the extractive industry, in some sectors of the manufacturing industry, and also in unprofitable enterprises of other branches of industry operating according to the plan. The economic reform which began to be implemented in 1965 created the necessary prerequisites for the liquidation of expected losses in unprofitable industrial sectors and enterprises; wholesale prices were reviewed (1967), which made possible the liquidation of expected losses of certain sectors and the reduction to a great extent of the number of enterprises operating on the basis of expected losses (for example, in the coal, timber, and fishing industries). As a result, the enterprises were given greater incentive to use material, labor, and financial resources more efficiently.

Subsidies are also allocated from higher to subordinate budgets to fill the gap between revenues and expenditures in the latter. Before the 1930’s in the USSR, general subsidies were used to strengthen the resources of local budgets and were also applied to special subsidies for strictly defined purposes. In 1932 deductions from ail-Union revenues became the basic method of balancing subordinate budgets. The scope of subsidies was sharply limited. This change strengthened the stability of Union and local budgets and increased the responsibility and the incentives of Union republics and local soviets for procuring their own revenue sources. Subsidies from higher budgets are used only in instances when other, more efficient methods of balancing budgets are exhausted. Measures carried out in the course of the economic reform to strengthen the revenue base of local budgets, and especially village and settlement budgets, have significantly reduced the scope of subsidies.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


1. a financial aid supplied by a government, as to industry, for reasons of public welfare, the balance of payments, etc.
2. English history a financial grant made originally for special purposes by Parliament to the Crown
3. any monetary contribution, grant, or aid
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005

block reward

The amount of cryptocurrency credited to a miner's account after the miner successfully adds a block of transactions to the blockchain. The block reward includes the fees paid by the initiators of the transactions and the block subsidy.

Block Subsidy
The subsidy is the amount of newly generated coins based on the cryptocurrency algorithm in use. For example, the Bitcoin block subsidy began with 50 BTC per block and cuts in half every 210,000 blocks, which is roughly every four years. Designed to end in 2140, it becomes more difficult to reap monetary benefit from the reward as time passes. After 2140, a miner's reward will be derived only from transaction fees. See Bitcoin mining, blockchain and Bitcoin.
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References in periodicals archive ?
The ER program provides funds for the repair and reconstruction of roads on the federal-aid highway system that have suffered serious damage as a result of either 1) a natural disaster over a wide area, such as a flood, hurricane, tidal wave, earthquake, tornado, severe storm, or landslide; or 2) a catastrophic failure from any external cause (for example, the collapse of a bridge that is struck by a barge).
One tool that States are using to help save time and money on locally administered Federal-aid projects is stakeholder partnering.
When the staff at the Ohio LTAP Center (located within the Office of Local Programs at the Ohio Department of Tranportation) integrated videos from Federal-aid Essentials with their own customized content, the end product was quick to create, low cost, and focused on their needs--results that would have been impossible if they had tried to develop the entire training program from scratch.
By war's end in November 1918, the Federal-aid highway program had little to show for the effort that had gone into its creation.
In addition, States could use highway right-of-way for publicly owned mass transit facilities, including rail lines, without repaying Federal-aid funds used to acquire the property.
FHWA faces challenges to improving its oversight that are in large part rooted in the structure of the federal-aid highway program and in FHWA's organization and culture.
Although some of the larger local public agencies are frequent recipients of Federal-aid highway funds and understand what is required of them, many smaller ones have less experience with the program.
For example, the federal-aid highway program creates the opportunity for substitution because states typically spend substantially more than the amount required to meet federal matching requirements--usually 20 percent.
These agencies build and maintain this network using a variety of funding sources, including dollars provided through the Federal-Aid llighway Program.
In discussing this report, agency officials noted that safety should be part of every project designed and built with federal-aid highway funds.

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