the daily feed portion prepared from various feeds according to various animals’ requirements. It is based on feeding standards and information about the composition and nutritive value of feeds.
The feed ration must consist of feeds appropriate to the animal’s anatomy. The volume and content of the dry matter of feeds must correspond to the capacity of the digestive system. The ration should include a variety of feeds. The ration’s structure (feed ratio) varies with the type of animal, age, intended use, and manner of feeding. The feed ration is modified during the year with changes in the animal’s physiological condition (pregnancy, lactation) and changes in the conditions under which it is kept (winter and summer). In preparing feed rations, standards for planned rather than actual productivity are used.
In the case of nonpedigree herds, feed rations are based on an average animal’s age, weight, and productivity and cover the longest possible period. Rations for individual animals and rations for a short period of time are prepared only on cattle breeding farms or for highly productive or sick animals. Feed rations that supply the animal’s entire nutritional needs are called balanced. Those that fail to satisfy even a single standard requirement are considered unbalanced. To help the farms, scientific organizations work out model rations for the main groups of animals designed for different natural and economic conditions.
V. K. DYMAN