Feed Resources

Feed Resources

 

feed reserves for livestock raising and sources for obtaining feed on a farm, in an oblast or raion, or in a country. Feed resources include fodders from natural and sown hayfields and pastures; field crops planted for hay, silage, feed grain, green and succulent feed; such threshing floor and field wastes as straw, chaff, and tops of roots and tubers; by-products of milling, vegetable-oil extraction, sugar refining, brewing, alcohol distilling, starch and molasses production, fish and meat processing and dairying; manufactured feeds such as mixed feeds and mineral feeds; and seaweed. In the USSR the creation of a good feed supply is considered essential for the successful development of collective livestock raising.

In prerevolutionary Russia, the principal source of feed was grassland, the best of which was owned by landlords. For want of pasture, the peasants had to graze their cattle on stubble, fallow fields, and meadows from which hay had been harvested. Annual and perennial grasses, root crops, and other feed crops were grown on farms belonging to landlords and kulaks. After the Great October Socialist Revolution and particularly after agriculture was collectivized, feed resources were intensively developed in accordance with plans for the development of animal husbandry. Feed resources were improved chiefly by planting more feed crops.

The amount of feed produced in kolkhozes and sovkhozes is increasing steadily. In 1966, for example, 23.7 quintals of feed units were consumed per head of cattle compared to 26.1 in 1970. The feeds obtained from plowed land, including feed grain, account for about 70 percent of the present feed resources.

Among the most important factors in the continued development of feed resources are more intensive field fodder production, ensuring the maximum amount of high-quality feed from each hectare; improvement of natural hayfields and pastures and creation of high-yielding cultivated ones by extensive irrigation; the breeding of new varieties of feed crops that are high in protein and adapted to the various natural and agricultural conditions in the country; and using better methods of making and storing feeds with minimal loss of nutrients, such as crushing grass in making hay, haylage, and grass meal, air-drying in the process of ensiling, compressing and briquetting hay, and providing good ventilation while hay is drying.

The feed reserves of foreign countries with well-developed livestock raising such as Denmark, the Netherlands, the Federal Republic of Germany, and the German Democratic Republic, consist chiefly of feed crops grown on plowed land and cultivated pastures. Natural pastures are important in Australia, South America, Africa, and Asia.

REFERENCES

See references under and .

M. A. SMURYGIN and N. S. KONIUSHKOV

References in periodicals archive ?
Fodder Supply: During winter season, animals were kept under stall feeding and major feed resources were crop residues, particularly maize Stover and grass hay, which was usually harvested during August-September and stored for winter (Table 4).
Fresians are best kept on large-scale farms with better resources but they are not the best producers when kept by small-scale farmers with limited feed resources.
The authors would like to express their most sincere thanks to Tropical Feed Resources Research and Development Center (TROFREC), Khon Kaen University, Royal Scholarship under Her Royal Highness Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn Education Project to the Kingdom of Cambodia, Thailand Research Fund (TRF) through the International Research Network (IRN) program and The Royal Golden Jubilee (TRF-IRN 57W0002) and TRF-RGJ 598001 for providing scholarship for the first author and provision of research funds and facilities.
"While the crop is notoriously difficult to grow, however, producing it ourselves here in Scotland would give us control of our own feed resources, reduce our reliance on imported soya and reduce our fuel footprint.
To operationalize the supply of quality forages, BAR collaborated with the Isabela State University (ISU) to improve dairy production and increase the income of dairy farmers through the utilization of green corn silage and urea molasses mineral block supplementation using locally available feed resources. Green corn silage production, nutrient-enriched rice straw (as haylage) and the use of UMMB have been proven to improve nutrition among dairy animals, thereby improving milk and meat production.
One of the goals of modern dairy farming is to identify nutritional strategies that enhance calf performance during early life, and subsequently improve mature production parameters, may provide unique opportunities to optimize feed resources and increase the profitability of beef cattle operations.
Reduced availability of feed resources due to persistent drought, the flock owners were forced to sell their stock at very low prices.
Similar to this result, a study in Enebse Sar Midir district indicated that natural pastures were the main feed resources during the dry and wet season for goats [17].
COMMODITIES, such as milkfish, mango, goat, crab, shrimp, banana, rice, abaca, swine, bamboo, rubber and feed resources are common in the Philippines.
Ologhobo, further stated that there is the need for livestock farmers to explore the use of locally available feed resources that have the capacity to yield the same output as conventional feeds and perhaps at cheaper cost to formulate diets that are nutritionally balanced.
'Utilisation of crop and fruit waste as feed resources is an area mostly overshadowed in the dairy sector due to multiple reasons,' Dr Masood Parvez, a PLDDB consultant, told The Express Tribune.
Researchers working in INRA Units, educators, and others in France who specialize in the nutrition and feeding of ruminants provide 26 chapters that describe biological concepts and equations used to predict intake, including in grazing situations, and nutrient supply from dietary intake; animal requirements and responses to diets, in terms of net energy, metabolizable protein and amino acids, water, minerals, and vitamins; their use in dealing with new issues in rationing and the evolution of systems to address multiple responses of animals to diet, rather than building the appropriate diet for a given productive performance; and the reference methods and prediction equations to assess tabulated feed values of forage, concentrate, and byproducts, including feed resources in warm areas.