Feliks-Emmanuil Gustavovich Tol

The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Tol’, Feliks-Emmanuil Gustavovich


(also F.-E. G. Toll’). Born Feb. 17 (Mar. 1), 1823, in the city of Narva; died Nov. 9 (21), 1867, in St. Petersburg. Member of the Petrashevskii circle.

Tol’ graduated from the Chief Pedagogical Institute in St. Petersburg in 1844. He was sentenced to hard labor in Kereyskii Zavod of Tomsk Province for his role in the Petrashevskii affair. Upon returning from exile in the late 1850’s, he contributed articles to leading journals. He wrote the novel Labor and Capital, which appeared in Russkoe slovo (1860, nos. 10,11) and memoirs about his term of hard labor, which appeared in Sovremennik (1863, no. 4). Tol’ also published his Reference Dictionary for All Fields of Knowledge (vols. 1–3, 1863), which reflects the democratic educational and cultural impulses of the Petrashevskii circle. Tol’ published the Appendix to the dictionary in 1866.


“Delo F. G. Tollia.” In Delo petrashevtsev, vol. 2. Moscow-Leningrad, 1941.
Pis’ma G. S. Baten’kova, I. I. Pushchina i E. G. Tollia. Moscow, 1936.
Kaufman, I. M. Russkie entsiklopedii, vol. 1. Moscow, 1960. Pages 35–38.
Zinevich, N. A. F. G. Tol’ (1823–1867): Ocherk zhizni i deiatel’-nosti. Moscow, 1964.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.