While his cartoons resisted stereotypes based on alcohol and Fenianism
, the romantic ethnic pride promoted by Hinds and others offered a less venomous source of satire.
Tyrrell traces O'Reilly's journey from early childhood through famine, revolution, Fenianism
and being sent into penal servitude for life in Australia.
Their outrageous individuality must have intrigued Holder, whose home village was described in Noake's Victorian Worcestershire Guide as having "no dissenters' chapel, no church rate distur-bancesno Fenianism
or agitation of any sort."
Newspapers, as he says, are the perfect place to study the politics of a given time and place and it was in the 1860s that Fenianism
The result of this abundance is that a five-minute chat with Bill is very much like an audience with a hardcore Ronnie Corbett, full of forthright digressions that trip seamlessly from farriery to Fenianism
, via immigration and the legality of dispatching Inland Revenue employees with a double-barrelled shotgun, the entirety lasting a lot longer than five minutes.
Davitt's progress within Fenianism
was rapid and he became a 'centre' of the local IRB 'circle'.
Oliver Rafferty, "Fenianism
in North America in the 1860s: The Problems for Church and State," History (1999) 84:257-277; Victor A.
in his eyes was the natural response to centuries of British misrule, particularly the attempt to impose the social relations of the English countryside on Ireland; creating landed property rights for Ireland's peasants would stave off independence and create new prosperity in the Emerald Isle.
Toronto Globe, March 30, 1866, quoted in Stacey, C., "Fenianism
and the Rise of National Feeling in Canada at the lime of Confederation," The Canadian Historical Review, Vol.
The church officially opposed Fenianism
as a secret society; but, Rafferty suggests, this was mostly because of the Fenian challenge to the Roman Catholic hierarchy's authority.