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region: see Baltic ShieldBaltic Shield,
the continental core of Europe, composed of Precambrian crystalline rock, the oldest of Europe. The tectonically stable region was not affected by the Caledonian, Hercynian, and Alpine mountain-building periods of Europe, although mountains did rise along the
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



a geographical region in Europe that includes the Scandinavian Peninsula (Sweden and Norway), Finland, the Kola Peninsula, and the part of USSR northwest of a line running from the Gulf of Finland through Lakes Ladoga and Onega to Onega Bay, on the White Sea. Area, approximately 1.5 million sq km (including 400,000 sq km in the USSR). Population, more than 18 million (1973). Fennoscandia includes the Baltic Shield and, in the west and northwest, the Caledonian folded structures of the Scandinavian Mountains. The topography is dominated by strongly peneplained medium-elevation uplands (elevations to 2,469 m—-Galdhøpiggen in the Scandinavian Mountains) and plateaus. The Khibiny massif, with elevations to 1,191 m, rises in the northeast.

There are broad, denuded plains in the areas of Fennoscandia adjacent to the Baltic Sea. The ice sheet that existed during the Pleistocene epoch, whose center was in the northwestern part of Fennoscandia, played a large part in shaping the region’s topography; glacial landforms, such as moraine ridges and coasts with fjords and skerries, are widespread. Glaciers exist today in the Scandinavian Mountains, and there are pockets of glaciation in the Khibiny massif as well.

The climate over most of Fennoscandia is temperate (marine in the west, more continental in the east) with cool summers and significant amounts of precipitation (up to 2,000–3,000 mm on the western slopes of the Scandinavian Mountains). Precipitation everywhere exceeds the rate of evaporation, hence the many lakes and marshes and the high discharge of the rapid-flowing rivers. More than half of Fennoscandia is covered by forests. North of 60° N lat. there are spruce and pine taigas on podzolic soils; the areas south of this line have mixed and, in some places, broadleaved forests on sod-podzolic soils. Tundras occur in the Far North, and heaths are typical of the western slopes of the Scandinavian Mountains.

Fennoscandia has large deposits of iron ore (Kiruna in Sweden, Kirkenes in Norway), copper-nickel ores (Monchegorsk and Pechenga Raion in the USSR), apatites (Khibiny in the USSR), chromites (Kemi in Finland), and complex ores (Boliden in Sweden).


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Northern Norrbotten forms a part of an important metallogenetic province in the northern region of the Fennoscandian Shield of Finland, Norway and Sweden, an area referred to as the Northern Norrbotten ore province.
Chief Executive Officer Kurt Budge said: "The Fennoscandian team is having a busy year and will continue to do so.
Estonian gravity data have also been used in international projects like Fennoscandian geophysical mapping (Korhonen et al.
Similarly, only one article, "Paleomagnetism of the sveconorwegian mobile belt of the fennoscandian shield" (Stearn & Piper, 1984) had a high [CPP.sub.2016] of 54.
Analysis of the mtCOI gene revealed two main clades as a phylogenetic tree and a network of haplotypes: a clade with Fennoscandian populations in Lake Paajarvi (Finland) and Lake Vanern (Sweden), and a second clade with populations in Lake Vortsjarv (Estonia), Orlov Pond in Saint Petersburg (Russia), and the type locality of the species in Lake Geneva (Switzerland).
Molecular characterization and phylogenetics of Fennoscandian cowpox virus isolates based on the p4c and atip genes.
Effects of fire on ectomycorrhizal fiingi in Fennoscandian boreal forests.
Vector roles of Fennoscandian mosquitoes attracted to mammals, birds and frogs.
For the northern Fennoscandian region, cross-correlation analysis of high-frequency secondary microseisms reveals Moho-reflected body wave (0.5-2Hz) (129) and P waves reflected by the 410 and 660 discontinuities (0.1-0.5Hz) (130) for inter-station distances up to 550 km.