Feodor III

Feodor III,

1661–82, czar of Russia (1676–82), son and successor of AlexisAlexis
(Aleksey Mikhailovich) , 1629–76, czar of Russia (1645–76), son and successor of Michael. His reign, marked by numerous popular outbreaks, was crucial for the later development of Russia.
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. Although an invalid, Feodor strove to carry out reforms. In 1681 he abolished the system of precedence among the boyarboyars
, upper nobility in Russia from the 10th through the 17th cent. The boyars originally obtained influence and government posts through their military support of the Kievan princes. Their power and prestige, however, soon came to depend almost completely on landownership.
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 families, whereby appointments in civil and military service were based on social rank rather than on merit. He was succeeded jointly by his brother Ivan VIvan V,
1666–96, czar of Russia (1682–96), son of Czar Alexis by his first wife. Ivan was mentally retarded, and on the death of his elder brother, Feodor III, his succession was opposed by the supporters of his half-brother, Peter I (Peter the Great).
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 and his half-brother Peter IPeter I
or Peter the Great,
1672–1725, czar of Russia (1682–1725), major figure in the development of imperial Russia. Early Life

Peter was the youngest child of Czar Alexis, by Alexis's second wife, Natalya Naryshkin.
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 under the regency of his sister Sophia AlekseyevnaSophia Alekseyevna
, 1657–1704, regent of Russia (1682–89); daughter of Czar Alexis by his first wife and sister of Czar Feodor III. Supported by the streltsi (semimilitary formations in Moscow), she seized power shortly after Feodor's death (1682) and was proclaimed
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.
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