Ferdinand III


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Ferdinand III,

1608–57, Holy Roman emperor (1637–57), king of Hungary (1626–57) and of Bohemia (1627–57), son and successor of Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand II. After the dismissal and assassination (1634) of the imperial commander WallensteinWallenstein or Waldstein, Albrecht Wenzel Eusebius von
, 1583–1634, imperial general in the Thirty Years War, b. Bohemia.
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, Ferdinand became nominal leader of the imperial forces in the Thirty Years WarThirty Years War,
1618–48, general European war fought mainly in Germany. General Character of the War

There were many territorial, dynastic, and religious issues that figured in the outbreak and conduct of the war.
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, but it was the imperial general GallasGallas, Matthias, Graf von
, 1584–1647, imperial general in the Thirty Years War. He served under Tilly, commander of the Catholic League, in Germany until 1629, and then entered Italy, helping to take Mantua (1630).
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 who was responsible for the successes that culminated in the victory of Nördlingen (1634). After Ferdinand's accession, however, the war took a disastrous turn. Although anxious for peace, Ferdinand rejected the early peace proposals, but in 1648 he had to assent to the treaties negotiated at Münster and Osnabrück (see Westphalia, Peace ofWestphalia, Peace of,
1648, general settlement ending the Thirty Years War. It marked the end of the Holy Roman Empire as an effective institution and inaugurated the modern European state system.
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), which virtually ended the central power of the Holy Roman EmpireHoly Roman Empire,
designation for the political entity that originated at the coronation as emperor (962) of the German king Otto I and endured until the renunciation (1806) of the imperial title by Francis II.
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. The emperor and his successors were left only the shadow of the imperial dignity, and their power was restricted to the hereditary Hapsburg dominions. In these dominions—a vast enough empire in themselves—Ferdinand devoted the rest of his reign to healing the wounds of war and to continuing administrative reforms. He was succeeded by his son, Leopold ILeopold I,
1640–1705, Holy Roman emperor (1658–1705), king of Bohemia (1656–1705) and of Hungary (1655–1705), second son and successor of Ferdinand III.
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.

Ferdinand III,

1199–1252, Spanish king of Castile (1217–52) and León (1230–52), son of Alfonso IX of León and Berenguela of Castile. At the death (1217) of her brother, Henry IHenry I,
1204–17, Spanish king of Castile (1214–17), son and successor of Alfonso VIII. At his death after a short, uneventful reign, his sister Berenguela renounced her rights to the crown in favor of her son, Ferdinand III.
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 of Castile, Berenguela renounced her right of succession in Ferdinand's favor. Having inherited (1230) León from his father, Ferdinand permanently united the kingdoms of Castile and León. Ferdinand spent most of his reign crusading against the Moors. He took Córdoba (1236), Jaén (1246), and Seville (1248) and occupied Murcia (1243). He thus completed the reconquest of Spain, except for the kingdom of Granada, which became a vassal state. Ferdinand was planning an expedition to Morocco when he died and was succeeded by his son, Alfonso X. In 1671, Ferdinand was canonized by the Roman Catholic Church. Feast: May 30.

Ferdinand III

1608--57, Holy Roman Emperor (1637--57) and king of Hungary (1625--57); son of Ferdinand II
References in periodicals archive ?
of America) describes the uses of sacred music to promote an image of the emperor in this superb study of the active art patron and historically much neglected Ferdinand III (r.1637-1657).
The translation of the date of Ferdinand III's death from the Islamic date to the Gregorian has somehow lost a century (see above).
Of course, the Madrigali guerrieri, et amorosi were not published until 1638, bearing a dedication not to Ferdinand II (who died in February 1637) but to his son and successor to the imperial throne, Ferdinand III. However, Monteverdi's dedication makes it plain that the elder Ferdinand had received the madrigals in manuscript,(15) and that he had granted the composer permission to have the works published.(16)
Born in 1609, the fifth son of King Philip III and Margarita of Austria; created a cardinal by Pope Paul V (1619); made lieutenant cardinal of Catalonia (1632) and appointed governor of Milan (1633); as governor of the Spanish Netherlands (1634), he joined forces with an Austrian army under his cousin Ferdinand, King of Hungary and Bohemia (later Emperor Ferdinand III), and defeated the Swedish-Weimarian army of Marshal Gustav Horn and Bernhard of Saxe-Weimar at Nordlingen (September 6, 1634); later led an invasion of France and captured Corbie (1636); fell ill suddenly and died (November 1641).
He was also responsible for the compilation of the Primera cronica general or Estoria de Espana, a history of Spain from the deluge through the reign of Ferdinand III, Alfonso's father.
Carter's suggestion that "Monteverdi quite literally composes [the motto] into his collection" (186), which was dedicated to the Habsburg Emperor Ferdinand III, is persuasive, even though the motto itself was not widely used with reference to the Habsburgs until the eighteenth-century.
FERDINAND III's TWENTY YEARS AS HOLY ROMAN EMPEROR fell between the reigns of two exceptionally dominating and effective emperors, his father, Ferdinand II, and his son, Leopold I.
A recent paper by Ross Brann ("Constructions of Exile in Hispano-Hebrew and Hispano-Arabic Elegies" [Hebrew], Israel Levin Jubilee Volume [Tel Aviv, 1994], 45-61) exemplifies this step forward by comparing a Hebrew poem lamenting the destruction of the Jewish communities of North Africa and al-Andalus by the Almohads with an Arabic poem lamenting the fall of Muslim territories in al-Andalus to Ferdinand III of Castile.
233) that Monteverdi hastily included several adaptations of older works among the pieces dedicated to Ferdinand III in his eighth book of madrigals because of the urgency created by the death of Emperor Ferdinand II and by the sudden 'need to provide for the proclamation of his successor' can hardly be correct.
Detailed descriptions and music survive for the 1539 marriage of Duke Cosimo I to Eleonora of Toledo and the 1588 marriage between Grand Duke Ferdinand III and Christine of Lorraine--the music for both of these Medici events has been edited and published (A Renaissance Entertainment, ed.
Others to play a part ranged from the Winter King of Bohemia to the emperors Ferdinand II and Ferdinand III, Bethlen Gabor of Transylvania, Christian IV of Denmark, Gustavus II Adolphus and Queen Christina of Sweden, the Great Elector of Brandenburg, Philip IV of Spain and his brother the Cardinal-Infante, Louis XIII of France, Cardinals Richelieu and Mazarin and several popes.
A Ricardo II B Umberto I C Ferdinand III D Benedicto I