Ferdinand Lassalle


Also found in: Wikipedia.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Lassalle, Ferdinand

 

Born Apr. 11, 1825, in Breslau (now Wrocław), Poland; died Aug. 31, 1864, in Geneva. Prominent figure in the German workers’ movement, a petit bourgeois socialist, a pamphleteer and lawyer. Father of Lassalleanism, one of the varieties of opportunism in the labor movement. The son of a wealthy silk merchant.

From 1843 to 1846, Lassalle studied philosophy, history, and classical philology at the universities of Breslau and Berlin. From 1846 to 1854 he handled the divorce case of Countess Sophie Hatzfeldt, which brought him financial independence. During the revolution of 1848–49 in Germany he took part in the revolutionary movement in Düsseldorf, and in November 1848 he was arrested and sentenced to six months imprisonment. From 1849 to 1862 he corresponded with Marx and Engels. Although he frequently declared himself their adherent, he never fully assimilated the principles of scientific communism. Until the early 1860’s he in fact remained a petit bourgeois democrat. His writings, such as The Philosophy of Heraclitus, the Dark, of Ephesus (1858), The System of Acquired Rights (1861), and the drama Franz von Sickingen (1859), were seriously criticized by Marx and Engels. In 1862, at a time when the labor movement was reviving, Lassalle began to speak out from the point of view of petit bourgeois socialism and to agitate for the creation of a political organization of the German proletariat. He was elected president of the General German Workers’ Association (Allgemeiner Deutscher Arbeiterverein), which was founded in May 1863, and his writings The Workers’ Program and Open Letter to the Central Committee on the Convening of the General German Workers’ Congress in Leipzig were taken as the basis for the association’s program.

Lassalle’s great historic service, in the view of Marx, Engels, and Lenin, was his impact upon the process of emancipation of the German workers from bourgeois political influence. However, Lassalle’s dogmas, which became part of the association’s program, and the tactics he pursued and advocated lent a reformist and sectarian character to the organization he helped found. He oriented the association toward support of the policies of Bismarck. He defended the plans for uniting Germany by dynastic means, under the leadership of reactionary Prussia, in sharp contradiction to the line upheld by Marx and Engels, who called for a revolutionary unification of the country. As Lenin noted, “Lassalle was adapting himself to the victory of Prussia and Bismarck, to the lack of sufficient strength in the democratic national movements of Italy and Germany” (Poln. sobr. sock, 5th ed., vol. 26, p. 138, footnote).

Lassalle died of a wound received in a duel.

REFERENCES

Marx, K., and F. Engels. [Letters.] Sock, 2nd ed., vols. 28–30. (See index of proper names.)
Marx, K. “Kritika Gotskoi programmy.” Ibid., vol. 19.
Engels, F. “Voennyi vopros ν Prussii i nemetskaia rabochaia partiia.” Ibid, vol. 16.
Lenin, V. I. “Protest rossiiskikh sotsial-demokratov.” Poln. sobr. sock, 5th ed., vol. 4.
Lenin, V. I. “Avgust Bebel’ Ibid., vol. 23.
Lenin, V. I. “Pod chuzhim flagom.” Ibid., vol. 26.
Plekhanov, G. V. Ferdinand Lassal’, ego zhizn’ i deiatel’nost’, part 1. Geneva, 1887.
Stepanova, E. A. “Marks i Lassal’.” Proletarskaia revoliutsiia, no. 1, 1933.
Vorob’eva, A. K. “Iz istorii rabochego dvizheniia ν Germanii i bor’by Marksa i Engel’sa protiv Lassalia i lassal’ianstva ν 1862–1864 gg.” In the collection Iz istorii bor’by Marksa i Engel’sa za proletarskuiu partiiu. Moscow, 1955.
Gluzberg, M. S. “K voprosu o lassal’ianstve kak sisteme vzgliadov neproletarskogo sotsializma.” Uch. zap. Alma-Atinskogo ped. in-ta inostr. iazykov, no. 1, 1956.
Friederici, H.-J. “Zur Einschätzung Lassalles und des Lassalleanismus in der bürgerlichen und rechtssozialdemokratischen Geschichtsschreibung.” Beiträge zur Geschichte der deutschen Arbeiterbewegung, no. 2, 1960.
Hümmler, H. Opposition gegen Lassalle. Berlin, 1963.

V. A. MOROZOVA

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
If anything distinguished him from others in his orbit--figures like Bruno Bauer, Ferdinand Lassalle and Mikhail Bakunin--it was his capacity for rigorous and varied work.
In this Saxon trading city, on 23 May 1863, Ferdinand Lassalle founded the General German Workers' Association, ancestor of the SPD - the oldest political party in the country.
Often committed to belief in self-ownership as morally fundamental, they believe that people enjoy inviolable rights against aggression that either prelude state action entirely--many hard libertarians are anarchists--or else regard as indefensible anything beyond what Ferdinand Lassalle called the "night-watchman state." Robert Nozick, Ayn Rand, and Murray Rothbard are especially well-known exponents of hard libertarianism.
The first section charts Spielhagen's life and the beginnings of his writing up to his early literary success in the 1860s with novels such as Problematische Naturen (1862), In Reih' und Glied (1866), and Hammer und Amboss (1869).As in the book's third section on Spielhagen's later novels, quite a lot of space is given to plot summaries as the basis for brief interpretations focusing on key characters, motifs, and themes such as Spielhagen's Goethe reception, his interest in Ferdinand Lassalle as a problematic model of socialist power politics, and his interest in industrialization and technological progress.
The political complexities of the city were shown by the extraordinary Ferdinand Lassalle, the man hailed as the originator of German Social Democracy before his death in a duel in 1864.
Brandes wrote many scholarly studies illustrating his radical ideas, including monographs on the Danish religious philosopher Soren Kierkegaard, the German socialist leader Ferdinand Lassalle, and the Scandinavian playwright Ludvig Holberg.