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Ferghana(both: fyĕrgənä`), city (1989 pop. 200,373), capital of Fergana region, E Uzbekistan, in the Fergana Valley. The marketing center of a large oasis area, it has silk, cotton, and artificial fiber industries. Oil, coal, and uranium ore lie in the area. Founded in 1876 by the Russians as Novy Margelan, the city was renamed (1907) Skobelev and later (1924) Fergana.
a historical region in Middle Asia, in the area of the Fergana Basin. It was one of the first regions to support a culture of settled land cultivators, which emerged in the Bronze Age (seeDAL’VERZIN SETTLEMENT). Cotton was first grown in Fergana at the turn of the Common Era. In the eighth century it was conquered by the Arabs, after which it belonged to a succession of Middle Asian kingdoms. In the second half of the 18th century, Fergana separated from the Bukhara Khanate and formed the nucleus of the Kokand Khanate. After the khanate was abolished in 1876, Fergana was incorporated into the Russian Empire.
REFERENCESBernshtam, A. N. Drevniaia Fergana. Tashkent, 1951. (Contains bibliography.)
Zadneprovskii, Iu. A. Drevnezemledel’cheskaia kul’tura Fergany. (Masterialy i issledovaniia po arkheologii SSSR, no. 118.) Moscow-Leningrad, 1962.
Gorbunova, N. G. V drevnei Fergane. Tashkent, 1972.
(prior to 1910, Novyi Margelan; from 1910 to 1924, Skobelev), a city and administrative center of Fergana Oblast, Uzbek SSR. Located at an elevation of 580 m above sea level, in the southern part of the Fergana Valley, where the Skakhimardan River forms an alluvial fan. Railroad station. Population, 132,000 (1976; 9,000 in 1897, 14,000 in 1926, 36,000 in 1939, 72,000 in 1959,111,000 in 1970).
Fergana was founded in 1877 on the territory of the former Kokand Khanate as the administrative center of Fergana Oblast. In 1918 it became part of the Turkestan ASSR, and in 1924, part of the Uzbek SSR; in 1938 it became the administrative center of the newly formed Fergana Oblast.
Fergana is the largest industrial city in the Fergana Valley and the second largest industrial city in the republic, after Tashkent. The main branches of industry are the chemical industry, represented by petroleum refineries and plants producing nitrogen fertilizers, synthetic fibers, and furan compounds, and light industry, represented by a cotton-ginning mill, textile and artificial-leather combines, and silk-winding, footwear, and garment factories. Other major industries are the building-materials industry, which includes a wood-products plant, a plant producing rein-forced-concrete products, and a prefabricated-housing combine, and the food-processing industry, represented by a large vegetable-oil and fat combine, bread-baking plant, flour mill, cannery, two milk plants, and other enterprises. The city also has the Gazoapparat Plant and a district heat and power plant.
Fergana has pedagogical and polytechnical institutes, a branch of the Tashkent Agricultural Institute, light industry, petroleum, and industrial technicums, a secondary specialized polytechnic, cooperatives, and a music school. Cultural institutions include an Uzbek theater of musical drama and comedy and a Russian dramatic theater. The city has a museum of local lore, created in 1896 as a museum of the Turkestan division of the Russian Geographical Society.
REFERENCESGowda Ferganskoi doliny, 2nd ed. Tashkent, 1963.
Gowda Uzbekistana. Tashkent, 1965.
Tukhtasinov, I. Fergana. Tashkent, 1969.
G. R. ASANOV