fermion

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Related to Fermionic: Fermionic condensate

fermion

(fûr`mēŏn'): see elementary particleselementary particles,
the most basic physical constituents of the universe. Basic Constituents of Matter

Molecules are built up from the atom, which is the basic unit of any chemical element. The atom in turn is made from the proton, neutron, and electron.
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; exclusion principleexclusion principle,
physical principle enunciated by Wolfgang Pauli in 1925 stating that no two electrons in an atom can occupy the same energy state simultaneously. The energy states, or levels, in an atom are described in the quantum theory by various values of four different
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; Fermi-Dirac statisticsFermi-Dirac statistics,
class of statistics that applies to particles called fermions. Fermions have half-integral values of the quantum mechanical property called spin and are "antisocial" in the sense that two fermions cannot exist in the same state.
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.

Fermion

 

a particle with half-integral spin or an elementary excitation of a quantum system consisting of many particles, that is, a quasiparticle with half-integral spin. Fermions include all baryons—such as the proton, the neutron, and hyperons—and all leptons—the electron, the muon, and neutrinos—and the anti-particles of all baryons and leptons, as well as such quasiparticles as conduction electrons and holes in a solid. Bound systems consisting of an odd number of fermions are also fermions; examples of such systems are atomic nuclei with an odd atomic number and atoms with an odd difference between the atomic number and the number of electrons. The Pauli exclusion principle is valid for fermions. Consequently, systems consisting of identical fermions obey Fermi-Dirac statistics.

fermion

[′fer·mē‚än]
(quantum mechanics)
A particle, such as the electron, proton, or neutron, which obeys the rule that the wave function of several identical particles changes sign when the coordinates of any pair are interchanged; it therefore obeys the Pauli exclusion principle.
References in periodicals archive ?
The N = 8 theory has an so(8) R-symmetry, and we choose the fermionic coordinates and derivatives to transform as (2,8s) = (1)(0010) under sl(2) [direct sum] so(8).
researchers have confined fermionic atoms, such as lithium-6, in traps and then chilled the particles to nearly absolute zero, so that the particles coalesced into what are known as superfluid fermionic condensates (SN: 9/11/99,p.
The second generation is the standard proton-electron contour (the [mu]-analogy of the proton) having a bosonic mass close to the summary mass of the W and Z-bozons (229 GeV; the fermionic masses of the contour and those of the following contour are neglected).
Remarks on fermionic formula, in "Recent Developments in Quantum Affine Algebras and Related Topics" (N.
alpha] are fermionic, especially in physical applications, since then we have Fermi-Bose symmetry.
Given other evidence that the electrons in these so-called high-temperature superconductors am strongly interacting particles, researchers now hope to use fermionic gases to investigate these materials.
The crucial principle at work is Pauli's of course, and it is the fermionic nature of electrons which keeps matter from collapsing.
Objective: Two-dimensional fermionic systems exhibit some of the most remarkable phenomena in modern physics, combining fundamental aspects with a high technological impact.
Furthermore, it is small enough to ensure that neutrinos can condense under gravity to form galaxy-enveloping structures supported by fermionic quantum degeneracy [3,10].
m]} (the fermionic fields or fermions), collectively called the component fields.
The 11 papers here consider such topics as photonic properties of non-crystalline solids, ultrasonic wave transport in strongly scattering media, Anderson localization of ultrasound in three dimensions, time reversal focusing and the diffraction limit, and strongly correlated ultracold bosonic and fermionic quantum gases in optical lattices.
Some specific paper topics include combinatorics and geometry of higher level Weyl modules, the Cosh-Gordon equation and quasi-Fuchsian group syzygies of highest weight orbits, and fermionic Fock space.