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(fûr`mēŏn'): see elementary particleselementary particles,
the most basic physical constituents of the universe. Basic Constituents of Matter

Molecules are built up from the atom, which is the basic unit of any chemical element. The atom in turn is made from the proton, neutron, and electron.
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; exclusion principleexclusion principle,
physical principle enunciated by Wolfgang Pauli in 1925 stating that no two electrons in an atom can occupy the same energy state simultaneously. The energy states, or levels, in an atom are described in the quantum theory by various values of four different
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; Fermi-Dirac statisticsFermi-Dirac statistics,
class of statistics that applies to particles called fermions. Fermions have half-integral values of the quantum mechanical property called spin and are "antisocial" in the sense that two fermions cannot exist in the same state.
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a particle with half-integral spin or an elementary excitation of a quantum system consisting of many particles, that is, a quasiparticle with half-integral spin. Fermions include all baryons—such as the proton, the neutron, and hyperons—and all leptons—the electron, the muon, and neutrinos—and the anti-particles of all baryons and leptons, as well as such quasiparticles as conduction electrons and holes in a solid. Bound systems consisting of an odd number of fermions are also fermions; examples of such systems are atomic nuclei with an odd atomic number and atoms with an odd difference between the atomic number and the number of electrons. The Pauli exclusion principle is valid for fermions. Consequently, systems consisting of identical fermions obey Fermi-Dirac statistics.


(quantum mechanics)
A particle, such as the electron, proton, or neutron, which obeys the rule that the wave function of several identical particles changes sign when the coordinates of any pair are interchanged; it therefore obeys the Pauli exclusion principle.

quantum state

A fundamental attribute of particles according to quantum mechanics. The quantum states are primarily x-y-z position, momentum, angular momentum, energy, spin and time.

The shell structures of the atom are made up of fermion particles, which include the protons and neutrons in the nucleus and the electrons in the outer orbits. Fermions cannot share the same quantum state variables. For example, every electron traveling in electric current has a different quantum state than the electron next to it. The fermion was named after Italian physicist Enrico Fermi (1901-1954).

Bosons are particles that can be in the same quantum state. Photons are examples of bosons, and lasers, masers and the superfluidity Helium derive their behavior as a result. The boson, pronounced "bow-son," was named after Indian physicist Satyendra Nath Bose (1894-1974). See quantum mechanics, electron, photon and Higgs boson.
References in periodicals archive ?
Those include spin-2 mediators [84], t-channel fermionic mediators, fermiophobic scalar mediators [85], gluphylic mediator models [86-88], models with SM portals (Higgs or Z) [89], models of scalar DM [90], vector DM [91, 92], Higgs portal models with DM of diverse spin number [93-95], and others.
where the SO(12) group factor arises from the 12 right-moving world-sheet fermions [{[bar.y], [bar,w]}.sup.1,...6], which correspond to the internal lattice at the free fermionic SO(12) enhanced symmetry point.
where fermionic dependence has been restored and the differential functional identity (8) used again.
Thus, the novelty in our present investigation is the observation that the nilpotency of the fermionic symmetry transformations and CF-type restrictions play a decisive role in capturing the nilpotency and absolute anticommutativity properties of the conserved (anti-)BRST and (anti-)co-BRST charges in the ordinary 2D spacetime (see Section 5 below).
The supercharges connect the baryon and meson spectra and their Regge trajectories to each other in a remarkable manner: the superconformal algebra predicts that the bosonic meson and fermionic baryon masses are equal if one identifies each meson with internal orbital angular momentum [L.sub.M] with its superpartner baryon with [L.sub.B] = [L.sub.M] - 1; the meson and baryon superpartners then have the same parity.
In the gauge basis, [e.sup.+][e.sup.-] [right arrow] [nu][bar.[nu]]H process is sensitive to the seven Wilson coefficients--[[bar.c].sub.W], [[bar.c].sub.B], [[bar.c].sub.HW], [[bar.c].sub.HB], [[bar.c].sub.H], [[bar.c].sub.[gamma]], and [[bar.c].sub.T]--related to Higgs-gauge boson couplings and also effective fermionic couplings.
Using extensions of the minimal GUT type-III seesaw origin of neutrino mass has been discussed where the nonstandard fermionic triplet [[SIGMA].sub.F] (3, 0, 1) mediates the seesaw.
Two of these particles are gauginos, fermionic superpartners of the SM gauge bosons.
Rueda, "Novel constraints on fermionic dark matter from galactic observables," https://arxiv .org/abs/1606.07040.
In principle loops of scalar, fermionic and vector resonances of the strong sector can modify the Higgs couplings.