Ferrara

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Ferrara

(fār-rä`rä), city (1991 pop. 138,015), capital of Ferrara prov., in Emilia-Romagna, N Italy. It is a rich industrial and agricultural center, located on a low-lying, marshy plain that has much reclaimed land. Manufactures include chemicals, machinery, food products, metals, and refined petroleum. In the early 13th cent. the EsteEste
, Italian noble family, rulers of Ferrara (1240–1597) and of Modena (1288–1796) and celebrated patrons of the arts during the Renaissance. Probably of Lombard origin, they took their name from the castle of Este, near Padua.
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 family founded in Ferrara a powerful principality, and during the Renaissance commerce, learning, printing, and the arts flourished about the brilliant court. The 15th-century painters Cossa and Tura and the 16th-century writers Tosso and Ariosto lived in Ferrara, and the religious reformer Savonarola was born there (1452). The city was incorporated into the Papal States in 1558. Among Ferrara's many noteworthy buildings are Este castle (14th cent.), the cathedral (begun 1135), Schifanoia palace (14th–15th cent.), and the Palazzo del Diamanti (15th–16th cent.). The city has a university (founded 1391).

Ferrara

 

a city in northern Italy, in the region of Emilia-Romagna. Capital of Ferrara Province. Population, 155,400 (1973).

A transportation junction, Ferrara is an important commercial and industrial center. The major industry is the petrochemical industry, which produces plastics, dyes, and synthetic rubber. Other industries include general machine building, the production of aluminum semifinished products, glass, clothing, and footwear, and food processing, primarily flour and sugar. The city has a university.

Ferrara is first mentioned in the eighth century. The city became part of the Papal States in the second half of the eighth century, and in the late tenth century it was transferred to the margrave of Tuscany. The city received the status of a commune in the late tenth century. In 1167 it joined the Lombard League, and in the 12th and 13th centuries it was an important center for the transit trade along the Po River. The signory (tyranny) of the marquises of Este was established in Ferrara in the late 13th century. In 1471, Ferrara became the capital of the duchy of Ferrara. In the 15th and 16th centuries the city was an important Renaissance center, with the university, founded in 1391, playing a significant role. The court of the dukes of Este attracted artists and poets, such as L. Ariosto and T. Tasso. Ferrara joined the Papal States in 1598. The city went into economic decline in the 17th and 18th centuries. In 1796 it was occupied by French troops. The city was returned to the papacy by the Treaty of Vienna in 1815, but an Austrian garrison was retained in the fortress. In 1860, Ferrara was annexed by the Kingdom of Sardinia, which became the Kingdom of Italy in 1861.

The broad straight streets of Ferrara have retained the regular layout planned at the turn of the 16th century by the architect B. Rossetti. Ferrara’s architectural monuments include the Romanesque cathedral (begun c. 1135 with additions between the 15th and 18th centuries, now includes the Cathedral Museum), the Palazzo Comunale (1243–1481; architects include P. Benvenuti), and Este Castle (1385–1544; architects, Bartolino da Novara and Girolamo da Carpi). Among the palaces are the Palazzo Schifanoia (1385–1478; architects include B. Rossetti; frescoes by F. Cossa and C. Tura 1469–70; now a museum), the Palazzo dei Diamanti (c. 1492–1565; architect B. Rossetti; now a national picture gallery and lapidary museum), and the Casa Romei (15th century; now a museum). Ferrara has a national archaeological museum of local antiquities.

REFERENCE

Zevi, B. Saper vedere l’urbanistica: Ferrara di Biagio Rossetti, la prima città moderna europea. Turin, 1973.

Ferrara

a city in N Italy, in Emilia--Romagna: a centre of the Renaissance under the House of Este; university (1391). Pop.: 130 992 (2001)
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