Fertilizer Distribution Mechanism

The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Fertilizer Distribution Mechanism

 

the working element of a machine for distributing mineral fertilizers.

Table 1. Average Increases in crop yield in the USSR after the addition of mineral fertilizers1
 Amount of NPK2 (kg/ha)Increase in yield3 (quintals/ha)Increase in yield per kg NKP (kg)
1Based on data from experiments conducted between 1965 and 1975 at the All-Union Research Institute of Fertilizers and Soil Science and at other research institutions
2Nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium fertilizer
3Compared to control plantings without fertilizer
Cereal (grains). . . . . . . . . .1245.34.2
Fiber flax (fiber). . . . . . . . . .1702.11.2
Cotton (raw cotton). . . . . . . . . .37614.13.7
Sugar beets. . . . . . . . . .2748029.1
Potatoes. . . . . . . . . .2266026.5
Corn fodder. . . . . . . . . .1806737.2

Five types of distribution mechanisms are distinguished: revolving-bottom, centrifugal disk, star-wheel, chain-driven, and drum distributors. The revolving-bottom type has become the most common in the USSR. It is mounted on dry-fertilizer broadcasters, corn, beet, cotton, and vegetable drills and planters, and plant feeder-cultivators. The distribution mechanism is powered by the drive wheels of the machine. The revolving bottom takes fertilizer from the hopper or bin to the spreaders, which revolve and spread the fertilizer onto the surface of the field (for broadcast seeders) or into fertilizer tubes (in cultivators, planters, and seeders), through which the fertilizer is fed to the shares or top-dressing blades. The latter place the fertilizer in the soil at a definite depth. The centrifugal disk fertilizer distribution mechanism consists of one or two disks with vanes; it is used in dry-fertilizer broadcasters. The rapidly rotating disks distribute the fertilizer over the surface of the soil in a fan-shaped stream.

Star-wheel distributors are used on grain-seed planters. They are similar in operation to wheel-type grain seeding devices. Chain-driven distribution mechanisms were used on older models of dry-fertilizer broadcasters; they consisted of endless chains whose links had pegs that propelled fertilizer out of the hopper through a gate in its side. Drum-type distribution mechanisms were used with combined beet planters. Pneumatic distribution mechanisms are used to spread lime and fine powdered fertilizers.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.