We must recognize that, as a stand-alone tool, continuous FHR
monitoring is ineffective for avoiding preventable adverse outcomes.
21) showed that the women with an abnormal AT required more continuous FHR
monitoring in labor (OR=1.
was calculated as beats per minute by the software of the ultrasound machine after measurement by electronic calipers of the distance between two heart waves on a frozen M-mode image.
Chen et al  developed a Lab view based FHR
and uterine contraction (UC) pattern analysis software.
Guidelines from maternity healthcare leaders like the United Kingdom and Canada recommend IA to be performed over about three contractions in order to fully assess FHR
response before, during, and after a contraction (ACNM, 2010; Sholapurkar, 2010).
In contrast, methods utilizing the AECG have a greater prospect for long-term monitoring of FHR
and fetal well-being using signal processing techniques.
By far the majority of these have been based on a paradigm of detection and estimation of attributes selected to mirror the obstetrician's visual interpretation of the UP and FHR
graphs, or to reflect assumed physiological events.
However, the incidence of MAS increases in cases of non-reassuring FHR
and clinical condition of the newborn at birth.
Published EF and FHR
ratings for the various operating modes are summarized in Table 2.
Research scientists at the Fraunhofer Institutes for High Frequency Physics and Radar Techniques FHR
and for Communication, Information Processing and Ergonomics FKIE are developing the system in conjunction with the University of Siegen, PMD Technologies GmbH and Wilhelm Winter GmbH in a project dubbed LaotSe - short for "Airport runway monitoring through multimodal networked sensor systems.
The intraoperative fetal monitoring methods are invasive and rather impractical, including: electronic FHR
monitoring, fetal pulse oximetry, echocardiography and blood gasses measurements of the scalp or fetal skin.
By the time late FHR
decelerations appear, the foetus is already hypoxaemic.