These analysis techniques can be applied on cross sections along or perpendicular to the fiber axis
, and can be used to extract morphological repeat distances which correlate to crystallite and microfibril geometry.
Using these fibers as base for the production of sequentially deposited PSCs, they were able to fabricate devices displaying a much higher PCE when excited with light polarized along the fiber axis
than in the direction perpendicular to the fiber axis
In the current configuration this is modeled as a 100-[micro]m thick cut perpendicular to the fiber axis
direction as shown in Fig.
However, similar high modulus type pitch-based fibers deform by a shear mechanism with kink bands formed at 45[?] to the fiber axis
. Carbon fibers are very brittle.
The fiber axis
is aligned according to various keys and offers improved optical integrity, reductions in loss of optical power (measured in joules or milliwatts) and support of a single polarization state.
Microbends are microscopic deviations along the fiber axis
; a microbend can result if fiber is squeezed by the cable buffer or jacket material as it contracts at low temperatures.
At least a portion of the staple fibers has two flat end faces at an angle of 10 degrees or more to a plane crossing the fiber axis
of the staple fiber at right angles.
They're highly oriented along the long fiber axis
, and they're highly crystalline."
These include the physical and mechanical properties of the wood; the size, shape, and surface condition of the fasteners; speed of withdrawal; and orientation of fiber axis
Morphological studies show the crystal structure is oriented radially, so the fiber has a backbone of strong covalent bonds along the fiber axis
and hydrogen bonding in the radial direction.
Increasing fiber content decreases the thermal expansion in a direction parallel to the fiber axis
but has little effect in the direction transverse to the fiber axis
The refractive indices for light polarizing parallel ([n.sup.[parallel]]) and perpendicular ([n.sup.[perpendicular to]]) to the fiber axis
can be determined by applying the following equation 4: