Ficus


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Ficus

[′fī·kəs]
(botany)
A genus of tropical trees in the family Moraceae including the rubber tree and the fig tree.
(invertebrate zoology)
A genus of gastropod mollusks having pear-shaped, spirally ribbed sculptured shells.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Ficus

 

(fig), a genus of evergreen and, less commonly, deciduous trees and shrubs of the family Moraceae. There are some prostrate and climbing lianas; the latter climb by means of adventitious roots. Arboreal species reach 40 m in height and 3–5 m in diameter; they form massive roots at the base of the trunk. Many species, for example, the banyan (F. bengalensis), begin life as epiphytes and then form adventitious roots that reach the ground and proliferate into strong columnar supports for the massive crown. The aerial roots of certain epiphytic species strangle the host tree by entwining the trunk.

Fig leaves are usually entire; in some species they reach 60–70 cm in length. All parts of the plant contain a milky juice. The flowers, which have a reduced perianth, are small, usually unisexual, and complexly entomophilous. They develop on the internal surface of a spherical or pear-shaped hollow inflorescence that opens at the apex. The inflorescences form on the branches and on the trunks in the leaf axils. Pollination is performed by hymenopterons of the family Agaonidae. After fertilization a collective fruit, known as a syconium, develops. Each simple fruit of the syconium is dry and single-seeded; the walls of the syconium are either dry or juicy. The fruits of some species, for example, the common fig (F. carica) and the sycamore fig (F. sycomorus), are used as food.

There are more than 800 fig species, distributed in the tropics and, to a lesser extent, subtropics of both hemispheres. The plants are particularly widespread in the tropical rain forests of Southeast Asia, the Malay Archipelago, New Guinea, and the Solomon Islands. The milky juice of many species contains rubber, but it is not commercially valuable. The rubber plant (F. elastica), which is native to India and Burma and is raised as a houseplant, has a rubber content of as much as 30 percent.

Several fig species, including the common fig and the banyan, are hosts of the scale Tachardia lacca, an insect from which shellac is obtained.

REFERENCES

Fedorov, A. A. “Drevesnye epifity i fikusy-udushiteli v tropicheskikh lesakh Kitaia.” Botanicheskii zhurnal, 1959, vol. 44, no. 10.
Corner, E. J. H. “Ficus in the Solomon Islands and Its Bearing on the Post-Jurassic History of Melanesia.” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series B. Biological Sciences, 1967, no. 783.

S. S. MORSHCHIKHINA

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
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Phosphorus was estimated in ecotypes of Ficus palmate grown in AJK (Figure1).
The species of Ficus studied were identified by the author using the descriptions of Burger (1977) and Berg (2009).
and Orius insidiosus Say (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae), for control of Gynaikothrips uzeli Zimmerman (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) on Ficus benjamina.
Table-5: Quantification of total flavonoid content of crude extracts of leaves and bark of Ficus natalensis
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Carollia perspicillata presento una dieta mas variada y un inusual porcentaje de consumo de frutos del genero Ficus (28.6%) y Cecropia (28.6%), sobre Piper (14.3%) y Vismia (14.3%), que son recursos mas frecuentes en Carollia spp.
En el sureste de Venezuela, Putz (1983) encontro que el 13% de los arboles con DAP >10cm, presentan asociacion con alguna especie hemiepifita principalmente de los generos Clusia y Ficus. En Africa, las plantas hemiepifitas, y en especial las estranguladoras, son representativas en el paisaje.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The two medicinal plants Acacia catechu (Katha in Manipuri) and Ficus hispida (Ashee heibong in Manipuri) were collected from different parts of Manipur during the period from March 2006 to February 2007 and processed in the laboratory to get the yield or extract as given below and also to determine the bactericidal effect on two known strains of Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) and Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), as described in the Clinical Bacteriology by E.
Rivera-Munoz, "Physicochemical and rheological characterization of Opuntia ficus mucilage at three different maturity stages of cladode," European Polymer Journal, vol.
Bazaid, "Phytochemicals, nutritionals and antioxidant properties of two prickly pear cactus cultivars (Opuntia ficus indica Mill.) growing in Taif, KSA," Food Chemistry, vol.
The shrubs implanted during the drive were Ficus hawi, Bougainvillea, Casia glauca, Plambago, Hypericum, Hamelia pattens, Jatropha, Erithrina blacki, Hibiscus, Psuedonia, Silvery, Duranta, Roses.