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This article is provided by FOLDOC - Free Online Dictionary of Computing (foldoc.org)
fileA collection of bytes stored as an individual entity on every computer-based mobile or desktop device. A file is the common denominator of storage. All data and programs, no matter which kind, are stored as files with an assigned file name that must be unique within the storage folder (directory) it resides in. Files with the same name can reside in separate folders. See folder.
Computers Know Nothing About Data Files
To the computer, a data file is nothing more than a string of bytes that is identified by name and location in storage. Once read into the computer's RAM, the structure of a file is known to the software that manipulates it. For example, database files are made up of a series of records (rows) such as one per customer, vendor or transaction. Word processing files contain a continuous flow of text interspersed with format codes (tags).
Except for ASCII text files, which contain only raw text, all other data files have proprietary structures. Formatting and descriptive information are contained in headers at the beginning of the file and/or in tags interspersed throughout the file. XML is an example of a very popular tagged text file. See metadata and XML.
Computers Do Understand Program Files
In contrast to data files, the computer is inherently aware of the content of an executable program file, which contains machine instructions. When read from storage and written into RAM, the computer is given the starting byte in RAM, and it expects to find the machine language it recognizes and can execute, one instruction following the other (see machine language). Otherwise, it will not execute the program (see abend).
|Everything Stored Is a File|
|The common unit of storage no matter what the application is the file.|
Following are the major file types and the data structures they contain. See file association, ASCII file, file system and files vs. folders.
|Files add up quicker than people realize. A virus scan in 2021 of this Mac identified more than a million files. Hard to believe such a large quantity exists when there are approximately 50 apps installed in the machine.|
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