in Late Jurassic pterosaurs supported by coprolite contents.
Giant clams are autotrophic and heterotrophic organisms, in contrast to several marine bivalves that have filter feeding
as their sole energy source.
Jorgensen, Bivalve Filter Feeding
: Hydrodynamics, Bioenergetics, Physiology and Ecology, Olsen & Olsen, Fredensborg, Denmark, 1990.
The other aspect of menhaden not covered in the excellent article is its unique ability to clean up harbors and estuaries by virtue of its filter feeding
. Conservation groups not directly involved with fishing are taking an interest in the plight of this poor fish.
Officially named Siphusauctum gregarium, fossils reveal a tulip-shaped creature that is about the length of a dinner knife (approximately 20 centimeters) and has a unique filter feeding
The fish fossils also prove that filter feeding
emerged long before the first whales.
"The analysis presented indicates that, in the wake of possible climate changes and consequent negative impacts on wild fish populations that cater to the reduction industries, the way forward is to make a concerted effort to increase and further develop omnivorous and filter feeding
finfish aquaculture in the tropics and subtropics", argued the FAO experts.
"The minke whale is the smallest of the filter feeding
whales that we often see in the UK.
shellfish such as cockles, mussels and oysters feed on microscopic algae that grow in the sea.
Last night a spokesman for the Environmental Health department said: "Paralytic and diarrhetic shellfish poisoning toxins are produced by algae and taken up into the food chain by filter feeding
DA can affect many different species, most often by the contamination of shellfish beds and planktivorous fish via filter feeding
. Subsequent consumption by other organisms can lead to accumulation of DA in higher trophic levels, including avian, marine mammal, and human populations (Gulland et al.
The study revealed a rich community of more than 370 types of sponge and other filter feeding
organisms, many are likely to be new species.