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theory and practice of conducting large public and private dealings in money. Important institutions of private finance include those that deal with insuranceinsurance
or assurance,
device for indemnifying or guaranteeing an individual against loss. Reimbursement is made from a fund to which many individuals exposed to the same risk have contributed certain specified amounts, called premiums.
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, bankingbanking,
primarily the business of dealing in money and instruments of credit. Banks were traditionally differentiated from other financial institutions by their principal functions of accepting deposits—subject to withdrawal or transfer by check—and of making loans.
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, stocks (see stockstock,
in finance, instrument certifying to shares in the ownership of a corporation. Bonds are similar evidences of shares in a loan to a corporation. Stock yields no dividends until claims of bondholders have been met.
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), bonds, and other securities. With the development of the national state, public finance—the management of the revenues, expenditures, and debts of the state—has been of great political, as well as economic, importance. The most important source of government revenue is taxes, but sale of public properties and franchises, as well as the sale of interest-bearing bonds, also contribute. Since the Korean War, a large part of governmental expenditures has gone for various military and defense needs. Other important areas of governmental expenditure are health, education, and welfare (the Social Security, Medicare, and Medicaid programs); interest on the national debt; and public works. Important institutions of international finance are the International Bank for Reconstruction and DevelopmentInternational Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD)
(IBRD), independent specialized agency of the United Nations, with headquarters at Washington, D.C.; one of five closely associated development institutions (also including the International Center for Settlement of
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 and the International Monetary FundInternational Monetary Fund
(IMF), specialized agency of the United Nations, established in 1945. It was planned at the Bretton Woods Conference (1944), and its headquarters are in Washington, D.C.
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See D. Allen, Finance (1983); D. Swain, Managing Public Money (1987); L. Harris et al., ed., New Perspectives on the Financial System (1988); N. Gianaris, Contemporary Public Finance (1989).


See also Money.
the Paris stock exchange. [Fr. Commerce: Misc.]
Dow Jones
the best known of several U.S. indexes of movements in price on Wall Street. [Am. Hist.: Payton, 202]
Lombard Street
London bankers’ row; named for 13th-century Italian moneylenders. [Br. Hist.: Plumb, 15]
Old Lady of Threadneedle Street
nickname for the Bank of England. [Br. Culture: Misc.]
goddess of commerce. [Gk. Myth.: Kravitz, 88]
Rockefeller, John
D(avison) (1839–1937) multimillionaire oil tycoon and financier, [Am. Hist.: EB, VIII: 623]
Throgmorton Street
location of Stock Exchange; by extension, financial world. [Br. Hist.: Brewer Dictionary, 1079]
Wall Street N.Y.C.
financial district. [Am. Hist.: Jameson, 530]


1. funds or the provision of funds
2. funds; financial condition
References in periodicals archive ?
Financial centres including Astana, Casablanca, Dublin, Hong Kong, Milan, London, Luxembourg, Milan, Paris, Qatar, Shanghai and Stockholm backed the Casablanca statement, agreeing to harness their expertise to drive action on climate change and sustainable development.
Internationally, New York, London, Hong Kong, and Singapore remained the four leading global financial centres, the report added.
Yousuf Al-Jaidah, Deputy CEO of the QFC Authority, said, "The QFC is delighted that Qatar has again been recognised as a leading financial centre in the GCC, ranked within the top 20 financial centres from around the world- Qatar's ranking and rise in ratings reflects how well the economy is performing in an unstable global economy.
Qatar's rating rose by 15 points, mainly driven by its increasing competitiveness and perceived significance as a financial centre.
I think by many measures London is still leading financial centres in the world.
Moscow is attempting to set up its own financial centre and DIFC chief executive Abdullah Al Awar has offered his assistance, saying such an institution based in Moscow would be a welcome addition to other financial centres.
DIFCEe's high standard of laws, rules and regulations, 100 percent foreign ownership, zero percent tax rate on income and profits and wide network of double taxation treaties available to UAE incorporated entities make it the ideal platform for players from advanced financial centres to take advantage of the regionEe's rapidly growing demand for financial and business services.
Shashank Srivastava, CEO and Board Member of the QFC Authority, added, "I am delighted that Qatar has been recognised as the leading financial centre in the Middle East.
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The International Financial Centres' Yearbook -- IFC Yearbook -- is a comprehensive guide to international financial centres (IFCs) specialising in the diverse area of 'offshore' finance.
The Gulf Financial Centres statistical survey carried out by Euromoney Conferences shows an increase in regulated financial institutions in all the region's main Centres (Bahrain, Qatar Financial Centre and Dubai International Financial Centre) over the course of 2011.
We look forward to developing the relationship between our two financial centres in the future.

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