Fire Retardants

Fire Retardants


substances or mixtures protecting wood, textiles, and other materials of organic origin from ignition or spontaneous combustion. The protective action of fire retardants is a result of several factors. They have a low melting point and form an airtight film that bars oxygen from the protected material. They decompose under heat and produce inert gases or vapors which hinder the ignition of gaseous products formed by the decomposition of the protected material. They absorb large quantities of heat during the melting, evaporation, and dissociation of the antioxidant, thus preventing the treated material from reaching its own decomposition temperature. They increase carbon formation by the treated materials during decomposition by generating acids.

The most widely used fire retardants are ammonium phosphates (diammonium phosphate, monoammonium phosphate and mixtures of the two), ammonium sulphate, borax, and boric acid; ammonium chloride and zinc chloride are used less often for this purpose.

Materials are made fire-retardant by deep permeation with aqueous solutions (50–66 kg of anhydrous salt per cubic meter of wood) and then drying. In addition, fire-retardant coatings are applied to surfaces in the form of solutions (DSK-P, made of diammonium phosphate, ammonium sulphate, and a kerosene catalyst; PPL, based on potash and a kerosene catalyst; and others), paints (FAM, a furfural-acetone blend with an admixture of ureaformaldehyde resin; PCVO, based on chlorinated polyvinyl chloride resin; and MCS, an oil paint with chloroparaffin and other components), and caulking compounds (made from superphosphate, clay and limestone, and so on). Those parts of equipment subject to outdoor exposure are further treated with weatherproof fire-retardant paint.


Zashchita dereviannykh konstruktsii ot vozgoraniia. Moscow, 1958.
Taubkin, S. I. Osnovy ognezashchity tselliuloznykh materialov. Moscow, 1960.


References in periodicals archive ?
The additive to the polymer chip does not contain any toxic fire retardants from the halogen group elements nor heavy metal flame retardant additives.
The Martinswerk acquisition builds on Huber's 34 year history of supplying fire retardants and smoke suppressants.
Although many kinds of fire retardants for wood and wood-based composites have been studied, the focus is still mainly on compounds or mixtures containing phosphorus, nitrogen, and boron, which can be used in a water solution for solid wood impregnation.
In recent years, where global warming and droughts have exacerbated forest fires across the American West, federal and state firefighting agencies have upped their cumulative annual use of long-term fire retardants to some 20+ million gallons a year spread across tens of thousands of individual fly-overs.
Published earlier this year by the environmental group, "Killer Couches: Protecting Infants & Children from Toxic Exposure" reports that a high percentage of household furniture in California contain halogenated fire retardants which are toxic to humans and animals.
Among their topics are the combined fire retardant action of phosphonated structures and clay dispersion in epoxy resin, borates as fire retardants in halogen-free polymers, fire-resistant flexible foams, and smoke toxicity in automotive materials.
5) Environmental Working Group, News Release, "Toxic Fire Retardants Found in Women's Breast Milk," Sept.
Since the 1970s, PBDEs have been in widespread use as fire retardants in plastics, foam, and textiles.
Phosphorus fire retardants generally form a carbonaceous char by a dehydrating mechanism in which phosphorus acids released during burning catalyze water evolution from oxygen-containing polymers to form the char.
Recently, it has been more common to impregnate fire retardants that include phosphorus, boron, or silica to the wood.
Specialty concentrates in solid or liquid form are available containing fire retardants, colorants, fillers, antioxidants, uv stabilizers, silicones, blowing agents, slip agents, or antistats.