Fire technology

Fire technology

The application of results of basic research and of engineering principles to the solution of practical fire protection problems, but entailing, in its own right, research into fire phenomena and fire experience.

The contribution of the practices of fire prevention is potentially much greater than that of the actual fire-fighting activities. Fire-prevention and loss-reduction measures take many forms, including fire-safe building codes, periodic inspection of premises, fire-detection and automatic fire-suppression systems in industrial and public buildings, the substitution of flame-retardant materials for their more flammable counterparts, and the investigation of fires of suspicious origin, serving to deter the fraudulent and illegal use of fire.

The fundamental techniques used by fire fighters consist primarily of putting water on a fire. Water serves to cool a burning material down to a point where it does not produce gases that burn. While water is the most practical and inexpensive extinguishing agent, modern technology has provided not only additives to water to render desirable properties such as easy flow or enhanced sticking, but also chemical and physical extinguishants such as fluorocarbons, surfactant film-forming proteins, and foams.

A general approach to fire control has been developed involving use of flame inhibitors. Unlike older fire-extinguishing materials such as water and carbon dioxide, these agents operate indirectly in that they interfere with those reactions within a flame that lead to sustained release of heat. As a result, temperature of the system falls below ignition temperature. The most effective liquids are the halogenated hydrocarbons such as chlorobromomethane (CB) and bromotrifluoromethane (better know as Halon 1301) which are colorless, odorless, and electrically nonconductive.

In dry-powder chemical extinguishers, ammonium dihydrogen phosphate is the most useful fire inhibitor. Other dry-powder inhibitors are salts of alkali metals (which include lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, and cesium).

Foams are also widely used. Protein-type, low-expansion foams, particularly useful in quenching burning volatile petroleum products, are used in crash-rescue operations. High-expansion foams are available for fire suppression in enclosed areas. Some foams of this type are generated at a rate of 15,000 ft3/min (424.8 m3/min). They can contain sufficient air to allow a human to breathe inside them.

A film-forming solution of a specific fluorocarbon surfactant in water, known as light water, was developed by the U.S. Navy for use with dry chemicals to fight aircraft crash fires. It may be used either as a liquid or as a low-expansion foam to interfere with the release of flammable vapors from the burning fuel. Light water is also useful in extinguishing petroleum storage tank fires and may find application to urban fires once the cost is no longer prohibitive.

References in periodicals archive ?
Each of the 500 Dongfeng Special Vehicle trucks is now licensed, plated and powered by a 30 kilowatt fuel cell engine that was designed and integrated by Shanghai Reinventing Fire Technology Company Limited (Re-Fire), featuring Ballard FCvelocity-9SSL proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell stacks.
The training programme was conducted by Mohammad Abdul Hadi, Instructor/Fire Consultant, National Institute of Fire Technology Islamabad (NIFTECH) and Mudassir Nawaz, Instructor/Fire Consultant, Directorate General of Civil Defence, Ministry of Interior.
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In line with government initiatives across the region to more strictly enforce regulations designed to protect people and property, Honeywell recently held a Security and Fire Technology Symposium in Muscat.
Music City Fire designs and manufactures sound reactive and fire technology.
The said plot of H-11/4 was originally allotted to the National Institute of Fire Technology, according to the docuements.
Companies Mentioned in this Report: Fujikura, Furukawa Electric, INNO Instrument, Sumitomo Electric Industries, 2 SAE Technologies, AFL Global, Aurora Optics, Corning, Ericsson, Fiber Cable Solution Technology, Jilong Optical Communication, MaxTelCom, Signal Fire Technology, Vytran
state-of-the-art Fire Technology and Emergency Medical Technology facility will serve as a Candidate Physical Ability Testing center thanks to a $44,000 Neighborhood Reinvestment Program Grant provided by the County of San Diego.
The National Institute of Fire Technology in Islamabad is providing its services in this field and public/ private sector industries must educate and train their personnel and take advantage from this institute.
The two companies have focused on different markets and, with the amalgamation, NIBE Stoves also gains access to Stovax's gas and electric fire technology, Stovax Group's CEO Morley Sage added.
The company unveiled the new extinguisher at a presentation ceremony held recently in Taichung City, central Taiwan, stressing that the product is the only small-sized spray type model sold on the island and officially certificated by Taiwan Fire Technology Foundation and Bureau of Standards, Metrology & Inspection under Ministry of Economic Affairs.
Fire technology, responses, scope and training as well as community involvement, fire prevention, etc, have all developed significantly and I believe that this is an opportunity for more detailed and satisfactory arrangements to be discussed with our neighbours.