Three different fire-retardant chemical
formulations were used in treatments: a mixture of BX and BA ([Na.sub.2][B.sub.4][O.sub.7] x 10[H.sub.2]O and [H.sub.3]B[O.sub.3]; BX/BA, 1:1 by weight), MAP (N[H.sub.4][H.sub.2]P[O.sub.4]), and DAP [[(N[H.sub.4]).sub.2]HP[O.sub.4]].
Firefighters bombarded the flames from the air with water scooped from lakes and with sticky fire-retardant chemical
The various fire-retardant systems were found to reduce plate shear properties for plywood more than flexural shear properties depending on the fire-retardant chemical
and its chemical loading level.
Boron-based products are also effectively used as a smoke suppressant, either alone or in conjunction with other fire-retardant chemicals
. Another type of fire-retardant chemical
, which emerged in the 1990s, is melamine, which basically contains nitrogen and its combination with phosphorus.
Murray's research looks at four contaminant groups: industrial compounds, such as fire-retardant chemicals
; pharmaceuticals and personal care products; pesticides, such as atrazine, a common weed killer; and another catch-all category for other substances that don't fit into the prior three.
More than 1,100 firefighters have been assigned to the blaze, backed up by bulldozers, water-dropping helicopters and airplane tankers carrying fire-retardant chemicals
Because of solubility, the distribution of the flame retardant from a slurry is more uniform, and more effective, than that of dry fire-retardant chemicals
are added to make the product fireproof,
In an actual mission, a C-130 equipped with MAFFS is capable of dropping 2,700 gallons of fire-retardant chemicals
. Crews drop the chemicals in front of, not directly on, fires in an effort to slow down or stop their progress.
However, this year, thanks to fire-retardant chemicals
from Liverpool-based company Proventec, the goat survived and has now been stored in a secret place until December, 2007.
"We are concerned about the use of fire-retardant chemicals
and encourage manufacturers to minimize their use," said Brian Siger, chief of the California Bureau of Home Furnishings and Thermal Insulation.
Consequently, it may be required to quantify the fire-retarding efficiency of various polymer systems by determining which ones consume a minimal amount of fire-retardant chemicals
. The flammability of polymeric materials can be quantitatively measured by using cone calorimetry and thermogravimetry in a single scanning of a fire experiment, and the data from those instruments are considered quite reliable and well correlated with other flammability indicators (13, 14).