Bishops' Wars

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Bishops' Wars,

two brief campaigns (1639 and 1640) of the Scots against Charles I of England. When Charles attempted to strengthen episcopacy in Scotland by imposing (1637) the English Book of Common Prayer, the Scots countered by pledging themselves in the National Covenant (1638) to restore Presbyterianism. A general assembly of the Scottish church abolished episcopacy. The first war was ended without fighting by the Pacification of Berwick, in which Charles conceded the Scottish right to a free church assembly and a free parliament. However, the assembly that met promptly reaffirmed the covenant. In spite of the refusal of his Short Parliament to vote him money, Charles managed to raise another army, but it was unable to stop the Scots from invading England and occupying Northumberland and Durham. Charles made peace at Ripon (Oct., 1640), and his promise there to pay an indemnity to the Scots necessitated his calling the Long Parliament. See English civil warEnglish civil war,
1642–48, the conflict between King Charles I of England and a large body of his subjects, generally called the "parliamentarians," that culminated in the defeat and execution of the king and the establishment of a republican commonwealth.
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References in periodicals archive ?
Charles was on his way north to deal with a threat by the Scots in what became known as the first Bishops' War, and which led to the Civil War.
He offered to raise an army for Charles I at the time of the First Bishops' War with Scotland (1639).
He insists on the significance of the year 1637 as a watershed in both foreign and domestic affairs, and pushes back the roots of conflict to the intrusion of foreign policy concerns and the impact of the Scots wars (and most particularly, the failure of the first Bishops' War).
Principal wars: Anglo-French War (1626-1629); First Bishops' War (1639); First Civil War (1642-1646).
Andrews University, and married Magdalene Carnegie, daughter of Lord Carnegie, when he was seventeen; he traveled in Europe for a while after the birth of his son (1633), but had returned to Scotland by 1636; he sided with the party of resistance to Charles I during the religious unrest (July 1637) following the introduction of a new book of canons (1635) and a new prayer book (1637), and signed the National Covenant (February 1638); he then helped to suppress anti-Covenant forces around Aberdeen and among the Gordons, showing great enterprise (spring 1639), and visited King Charles after the Peace of Berwick (Berwick upon Tweed) (June 1639), which ended the First Bishops' War; he opposed the policies of the Earl of Argyll during the Scots parliament (August-October?