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see inflectioninflection,
in grammar. In many languages, words or parts of words are arranged in formally similar sets consisting of a root, or base, and various affixes. Thus walking, walks, walker have in common the root walk and the affixes -ing, -s, and -er.
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inflection of a noun, pronoun, or nonfinite verb form by case. Case meanings are expressed in all languages, but not all languages have declensions. In languages with declensions, case meanings acquire a regular morphological expression—as part of a word form—that is obligatory for all or most words. Languages also have certain indeclinable words, such as pal’to (“overcoat”), Dante (“Dante”), and Chili (“Chile”) in Russian.

The grammatical content of declension varies with the morphological type of a language. In inflected languages, case inflections express not only case meaning but also the grammatical category of number; the grammatical category of gender is often expressed as well. For example, the ending -ōrum in the Latin word librōrum (“of books”) combines the meanings of genitive case, plural number, and masculine gender. In agglutinative languages, case markers express only case meanings. The declensional system in many languages is not uniform even for a particular part of speech.

Indo-European languages have several types of nominal declensions, which depend on characteristics of the stem. In the comparative historical grammar of the Indo-European languages, and especially the Slavic languages, the declensional type is determined by the characteristics of vocalic and consonantal stems: a-stem, o-stem, n-stem, s-stem, and so on. Declensions can also be differentiated according to the forms of certain principal cases. In Latin, for example, declensions are distinguished according to forms of the genitive singular, the first declension having -ae, the second declension having -ī, and so forth. Certain groups of words belong to a mixed declension, in which paradigms of various declensions are combined.

In the course of time, a declensional system may be simplified and made regular. In Russian, for example, the rich older system of substantival declension was replaced by a system of three basic types—called the first, second, and third declensions—whose differentiation is related to gender distinctions and for which the principal form is that of the nominative singular: dom (“house,” first declension), voda (“water,” second declension), and noch’ (“night,” third declension).

In certain languages, declension has been lost entirely. It may be noted that the system collapses more rapidly for nouns than for pronouns. In English and French, for example, nouns are not declined, whereas pronouns have preserved two case forms, one combining the functions of various oblique cases, as with the English “I” and “me” and the French je and me. The loss of declension reflects the development in a language of analytic means for expressing grammatical meanings, as a result of which the role of case inflections is taken over by prepositions, articles, and other auxiliary words.


Meillet, A. Vvedenie v sravnitel’noe izuchenie indoevropeiskikh iazykov, 3rd ed. Moscow-Leningrad, 1938. (Translated from French.)
Zalizniak, A. A. Russkoe imennoe slovoizmenenie. Moscow, 1967.
Vinogradov, V. V. Russkii iazyk, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1973.


References in periodicals archive ?
The contrast between the first declension partitive singular and genitive plural forms 'lippu and 'lippude and the second declension counterparts 'aastat and 'aastate cannot be attributed to any prosodic difference between the stems 'lippu and 'aasta.
No obvious prosodic contrasts are responsible for the difference between the paradigms of Q3 monosyllables such as PUU and KOI or for the contrasts between the exponents that occur with heavy first declension stems such as 'lippu and second declension stems such as 'aasta.
A speaker encountering a heavy partitive singular 'lappi 'cloth' will recognize this as a first declension form and be able to infer the nominative plural lapid (and, indeed, the rest of the paradigm), even though the nominative plural is based on the genitive singular lapi, not the partitive singular.
In the first declension, the partitive cohort set includes the nominative and short illative singular, along with the genitive and partitive plurals and plural semantic case forms.
The nominative singular is, correspondingly, strong in the first declension and weak in the second declension, whereas the nominative plural is weak in the first declension and strong in the second.
A strong partitive cohort set also implies a weak genitive set in the first declension.
It is only by knowing which cells these stems realize in the paradigms in table 17 that a speaker can assign LIPP to the first declension and MOTE to the second.
The paradigm of LIPP in table 17 shows the most general first declension pattern, in which the genitive and partitive plural are both based on the partitive stem.
In a first declension paradigm without gradation, the partitive and genitive singular are identical, so either can serve as the stem of the genitive and partitive plurals.