Fischer-Tropsch process

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Fischer-Tropsch process

(fĭsh`ər-trōpsh), method for the synthesis of hydrocarbons and other aliphatic compounds. Synthesis gas, a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide, is reacted in the presence of an iron or cobalt catalyst; much heat is evolved, and such products as methane, synthetic gasoline and waxes, and alcohols are made, with water or carbon dioxide produced as a byproduct. An important source of the hydrogen–carbon monoxide gas mixture is the gasification of coal (see water gaswater gas,
colorless poisonous gas that burns with an intensely hot, bluish (nearly colorless) flame. The gas is a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen with very small amounts of other gases, e.g., carbon dioxide, and is almost entirely combustible as a result.
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). The process is named after F. Fischer and H. Tropsch, the German coal researchers who discovered it in 1923.

Fischer-Tropsch process

[¦fish·ər ¦trōpsh ‚präs·əs]
(chemical engineering)
A catalytic process to synthesize hydrocarbons and their oxygen derivatives by the controlled reaction of hydrogen and carbon monoxide.

Fischer-Tropsch process

The synthesis of hydrocarbons and, to a lesser extent, of aliphatic oxygenated compounds by the catalytic hydrogenation of carbon monoxide. The synthesis was discovered in 1923 by F. Fischer and H. Tropsch at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Coal Research in Mulheim, Germany. The reaction is highly exothermic, and the reactor must be designed for adequate heat removal to control the temperature and avoid catalyst deterioration and carbon formation. The sulfur content of the synthesis gas must be extremely low to avoid poisoning the catalyst. See Coal gasification

References in periodicals archive ?
The resulting syngas can be a useful raw material for various petrochemical processes such as Fischer-Tropsch synthesis and for the production of useful products, including ammonia, urea and methanol.
Early Fischer-Tropsch synthesis of products is a very wide boiling range of the mixed hydrocarbons and the synthesis gas production costs are expensive and uncompetitive in order to meet the liquid fuel and chemical raw materials demand, the world's major oil companies have invested huge human and material resources development GTL new catalyst and new technology, especially to focus on the rapid growth of demand for diesel-aviation kerosene and high value-added high-quality paraffin wax.
Shen, Role of CeO2 Promoter in Co/SiO2 Catalyst for Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis, Chin.
The reactor should be for operating at atmospheric pressure suitable (for oxidation, and steam reforming reactions Hydrierung-) and at higher pressures up to 50 bar (for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, Sabatier reaction and methanol synthesis).
The reduction of a silica nanospring (NS) supported cobalt catalyst for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) has been monitored by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS).
They cover properties of biomass fuel, sustainability considerations for generating electricity from biomass, combustion, gasification, pyrolysis, hydrothermal processing, anaerobic digestion, esterification, fermenting, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis from biosyngas, and bio-oil applications and processing.
Photoinduced carbon dioxide reduction leading to the formation of energy rich fuels, such as reduction of CO2 to CH4 or higher hydrocarbons has not been adequately studied as compared with the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis for hydrocarbons.
In addition to the limited refined products based on crude oil, Germany in 1944 was producing liquid refined fuel from coal, using the Bergius hydrogenation process and the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis process.
They cover air pollution and global warming from the use of fossil fuels, renewable energy sources, biomass availability in the world, conventional ethanol production from corn and sugarcane, ethanol from biomass by fermentation, biodiesel from vegetable oils, diesel from biomass gasification followed by Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, bio-oil from biomass pyrolysis, biocrude from biomass hydrothermal liquefaction, solar wind energy for biofuel production, environmental impacts of biofuels, the economic impact of biofuels, and biofuel policy.
Although there are chemical ways to convert methane to methanol, which is easy to transport and which is suitable as a raw material for the chemical industry, "the processes commonly used up to now for producing diesel fuel - steam reforming followed by methanol synthesis or Fischer-Tropsch synthesis - are not economical," said Ferdi Schuth, Director at the Max Planck Institute for Coal Research in Mulheim an der Ruhr.
The catalyst was evaluated in terms of its Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) activity (g HC produced/g cat/min) and selectivity (the percentage of the converted CO that appears as a hydrocarbon product) in a tubular fixed-bed micro-reactor.