Fishing Survey

The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Fishing Survey


a series of activities that include searching for, observing, and assessing the commercial value of aggregations of marine organisms (fish, mollusks, crustaceans).

Fishing survey is usually broken down into search operations and the survey proper. The search includes preliminary determination of the distribution of the target organisms, identification of regions favorable for the formation of aggregations, and the actual search for the aggregations. The survey involves determining the size and value of the aggregations, making short-term forecasts of the stability and movement of the aggregations, and guiding the fishing fleet to the marine animals.

Fishing survey involves both exploratory and operational work. The first includes the search for new fishing regions and commercial targets. The formation of commercial aggregations and their paths of migration are studied, as is the behavior of marine organisms in different periods of the year. Aggregations

Table 1. Fineness of metals and alloys in the USSR
Metric systemZolotnik systemCarat systemAlloy colorHardenerBasic use
1 Large quantities used during the Great Patriotic War (1941-45)2 Most widely used alloy in USSR3 Most widely used alloy in Western Europe 4 Of no practical significance in the USSR 5 Range of 10 fine
    Gold alloys 
9589223YellowCopperWedding rings
7507218RedCopper, silverJewelry
   YellowFishing SurveyFiligree work
   WhiteFishing SurveyDiamond jewelry
5835614RedFishing SurveyJewelry
   GreenSilver, copperIndividual parts injewelry
500Red1Copper, silverJewelry
   Pale yellow1SilverFiligree work
375Red1Copper, silverJewelry and watchcases
   PinkSilver, palladium, copperWedding rings
    Silver alloys 
960WhiteCopperDelicate filigree work
9168822WhiteCopperFiligree work, enameled articles
8758421White2CopperJewelry and domestic items
800White3CopperJewelry and domestic items
750White with slight yellowish lintCopperJewelry, fashion accessories
    Platinum alloys 
950WhiteCopperDiamond jewelry
    Palladium alloys 
850WhiteSilver, nickelWedding rings, in combination with gold 583 fine
500White4Silver, nickelJewelry
    Gold leaf 
1,000YellowFishing SurveyGilding of bas-reliefs on buildings, monuments, church domes
990-91 O5Yellow
    Silver leaf 
1,000WhiteFishing SurveySilvering of bas-reliefs on buildings, monuments, church domes

are evaluated, and the economic viability of exploiting them is determined. Operational work involves guiding fishing vessels to schools of fish, making recommendations concerning the deployment of the fleet, and observing hydometeorological and other working conditions.

Fishing survey employs direct and indirect methods. Among the direct methods are sample fish catches and the use of such detecting devices as sonar fish-finders. Indirect methods include the determination of the position of aggregations on the basis of environmental conditions. The indirect approach is the primary one, with direct survey used mainly to confirm results obtained indirectly. Fishing survey is based on the study of those environmental factors (for example, water temperature) that determine the range of fish distribution. It also takes into account seasonal physiological changes undergone by the animals.

Fishing survey employs the experiences of many sciences, including ichthyology, oceanography, hydrochemistry, and hydroacoustics. It is conducted through the use of fish-finding equipment mounted on ships, airplanes, and helicopters. In the USSR, specialized organizations of the fishing industry are involved in fishing survey.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
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