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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



a body of water constructed or adapted specifically for raising fish. At pond fisheries, meadows or marshy areas are allocated for ponds for warm-water fishes (carp, crucian carp, tench, bream). The water is supplied by small rivers and lakes, artesian wells, the waters from state regional power plants, and other sources. Ponds for raising cold-water fishes (trout, salmon, whitefish) are established in areas where the soils are not rich in organic matter; the water, which is from a stream or cold river, is cold, clean, and oxygen-rich. Springs contaminated with sewage and swamp water rich in iron oxide and having an acidic reaction are not suitable water sources for fishponds.

There are special devices for completely draining the pond and refilling it at the proper time. Nondraining ponds, in which the bottom is free of stumps, submerged shrubbery, and other objects that hinder the removal of all the fish from the pond, can also be used. The outflow and inflow systems are equipped with screens to prevent wild fish from entering the pond and the fish inside from escaping.

Fishponds are most often established on the floodplains of small rivers. The floodplains are partitioned off by an earthen dam with a sluice for draining the pond and a spillway for discharging water from floods and heavy rains. Such ponds are called riverbed ponds and are the least expensive to construct. However, they do have disadvantages: it is impossible to completely drain the water (since the riverbed is located within the pond), and it is difficult to keep out wild fish.

Fattening ponds, in which the fish are raised (fattened) to market weight, are most frequently made in river beds. They are the largest type of fishpond, with areas of several hundred hectares (ha) and depths of 0.5–2 m. Spawning, nursery, and winter ponds are usually established on a flood-plain by enclosing a section with earthen dikes. To supply water to such a pond, a head pond is constructed higher up the river with the aid of a dam; the water is fed to the fishpond by a special canal. Water outlets are installed in the ponds.

Spawning ponds, which are established at warm-water pond fisheries, have an area of 0.1–0.3 ha and an average depth of 0.6–0.8 m (in spawning sections, 15–30 cm). They are inundated with water only during spawning and larval development (two or three weeks). Nursery ponds are used for raising young fish under one year of age to standard weight and fatness. Their area is 10–15 ha, and their average depth 0.5–0.8 m. Winter ponds hold the young fish throughout the winter. They are usually 0.5–1 ha (to 1.5 ha) in area, and the depth of the nonfreezing layer of water is 0.8–1.3 m.

Care of fishponds entails proper maintenance of the hydro-engineering structures, removal of surface vegetation (reeds, rushes, cattails), and prevention of contamination by sewage and silt. Once every four to six years, fattening ponds are left without water.


Martyshev, F. G. Prudovoe rybovodstvo. Moscow, 1973.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
As of 1981, there are 3,300 fishpond operators raising milkfish in 70,300 hectares which were once mangrove areas.
The physical and chemical parameters are used to evaluate the water quality of fishponds the results are responses to the rational use of water in the fishponds (Sipauba-Tavares et al., 2010).
Fishponds House Hotel dates back to 1201 and some even claim to have encountered ghostly spirits in certain parts of the hotel.
Tiger prawn production also declined by 4.49 percent as some brackish water fishponds overflowed which resulted in loss of stocks.
Based on our assessment, 950 fishpond operators were already affected," Guintu quoted.
Findings by a fish health inspection team from the Provincial Agriculture Office of Bulacan and the Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources (BFAR) that earlier investigated the fish kill show the fish mortalities were due to the extremely low dissolved-oxygen content of the fishpond water caused by the cloudy skies and abrupt rainfall in the area.
THE REDCAR AND CLEVELAND BOROUGH COUNCIL B1269 FISHPONDS ROAD (40 MPH SPEED LIMIT) ORDER 2014 The Council has made an Order under Section 84 of the Road Traffic Regulation Act 1984 the effect of which will be to impose a 40 miles per hour speed limit on the length of road specified in the Schedule below.
Kamran Ajaib had no hand-wash basin or knife steriliser in his makeshift butchers in Maggs Lane, Fishponds, Bristol.
Brice, of Fishponds, Bristol, received a two and a halfyear jail term for fraud and theft, plus another 24 weeks for other offences.
NFU, Knights Lane, Tiddington, near Stratford; Race Leys Primary School, Barton Road, Bedworth; North Leamington High School, Cloister Way; St Thomas More School, Greenmoor Road, Nuneaton; Rugby High School for Girls, Longrood Road, Bilton, and Castle Farm Sports Centre, Fishponds Road, Kenilworth.
Mr Edwards alleges Mr Purnell, aged 57, libelled him in his match report to the Gloucestershire Football Association following a game between Fishponds and Park Rangers in May.
Silvertides was contracted by the airport project proponent, San Miguel Corp., to acquire the fishponds from private owners to give way to the airport complex dubbed 'Aerotropolis.'