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(fĭs`cho͝olə), abnormal, usually ulcerous channellike formation between two internal organs or between an internal organ and the skin. It may follow a surgical procedure with improper healing, or it may be caused by injury, abscess, or infection with penetration deep enough to reach another organ or the skin. When open at only one end it is called an incomplete fistula or sinus. The most common sites of fistula are the rectum and the urinary organs, but almost any part of the body may be affected. Rectal fistulas are often associated with colitis, cancercancer,
in medicine, common term for neoplasms, or tumors, that are malignant. Like benign tumors, malignant tumors do not respond to body mechanisms that limit cell growth.
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, sexually transmitted diseasessexually transmitted disease
(STD) or venereal disease,
term for infections acquired mainly through sexual contact. Five diseases were traditionally known as venereal diseases: gonorrhea, syphilis, and the less common granuloma inguinale, lymphogranuloma venereum, and
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, and other disorders. Usually a fistula requires surgery. In horses an abscess on the withers from chafing and infection is termed a fistula.



an abnormal passage between hollow organs or between an organ, body cavity, or focus of disease and the body surface. Usually in the form of a narrow canal lined with epithelium or granulations, it continuously discharges pus, mucus, bile, urine, or feces.

Congenital fistulas, for example, umbilical fistulas, are developmental anomalies. Acquired fistulas result from such chronic inflammations as osteomyelitis, from tumors, or from injuries. Fistulas are usually treated by surgery.

It is sometimes necessary to create artificial fistulas surgically. They may connect hollow organs, in which case they are called internal fistulas, or anastomoses. An example is gastroenteroanastomosis in cicatricial stenosis of the outlet of the stomach.

Gastrostomy is the establishment of an external fistula, or stoma, for artificial feeding. External fistulas also permit the discharge of urine or feces. For example, cystostoma is a fistula of the urinary bladder formed when the urethra is compressed by a tumor. With external fistulas, care must be taken to avoid irritating or infecting the surrounding skin.


Struchkov, V. I. Gnoinaia khirurgiia, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1967.


An abnormal congenital or acquired communication between two surfaces or between a viscus or other hollow structure and the exterior.


In ancient Roman construction, a water pipe of lead or earthenware.


Pathol an abnormal opening between one hollow organ and another or between a hollow organ and the surface of the skin, caused by ulceration, congenital malformation, etc.
References in periodicals archive ?
Key Words: Fistulectomy, Fistulotomy, Low fistula in ano, Healing time, Pain scores.
Low fistula in ano are simple fistulas involving a small portion of the sphincter complex (or none occasionally).
Keywords: Fistula in ano, Fistulotomy, Fistulectomy, Incontinence, Recurrence.
1 There are different classifications for fistula in ano but Park's classification is widely accepted.
The LIFT (Ligations of Intersphinteric Fistula Tract) Procedure2 and anal Fistula plug3,4 procedures are other alternative methods to achieve goals in the management of Fistula in Ano but the drawback of these procedures are need for very high expertise and high cost respectively.
Video assisted Ano rectal Fistula treatment is comparable to all the other procedures done for the Fistula in Ano regarding satisfaction5, healing6, early recovery because its minimally invasive and allows multiple attempts in case of failure in the first place.
A diagnosis of fistula in ano with external opening over scrotum was made.
Prospective evaluation of dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of fistula in ano.
Fistula in ano with Crohn's disease or H/o tuberculosis treated in past or suspicious of malignancy.
3) in British Journal of Surgery classified the Fistula In Ano into four types based on level of the fistula with respect to the sphincter.
The traditional treatment of high and complex fistula in ano consists of internal sphincterotomy and insertion of a cutting seton is associated with a risk of faecal incontinence4.
of Duration Anal Disease patients of Symptom Male Female Age % age Fissure in Ano 72 10-12 days 42 30 30-40 36% Fistula in Ano 12 20-25 days 9 3 35-58 6% Hemorrhoids 58 40-50 days 35 23 28-48 29% Peri Anal 8 3-7 days 5 3 20-30 4% Hematoma Peri Anal 10 2-7 days 8 2 30-38 5% Abscess Sentinel Tag 17 28-35 days 3 14 25-40 8.