fjord

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fjord

or

fiord

(fyôrd), steep-sided inlet of the sea characteristic of glaciated regions. Fjords probably resulted from the scouring by glaciers of valleys formed by any of several processes, including faulting and erosion by running water. When the regions occupied by these glaciers subsided, the valleys were drowned by the sea. The fjord coast lines of Norway, Scotland, Greenland, Alaska, British Columbia, S Chile, S New Zealand, and Antarctica are examples. A fjord differs from most estuaries in its sheer, parallel walls, often extending far below the water surface, and in its many branches of similar form. Often shallow at the mouth, fjords are frequently very deep farther inland. Sognafjord (Norway) is 4,000 ft (1,220 m) deep and over 100 mi (160 km) long. Loch Moran, Scotland (1,017 ft/310 m), is a typical fjord but is separated from the sea. Norwegian fjords are noted for their grandeur.
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Fjord

 

a narrow, winding, deep inlet in a mountainous coast. Its length is often dozens of times greater than its width. The sides of fjords are steep, even vertical, becoming less steep in the upper walls; the floor is highly irregular. The longest known fjord, Sognafjorden, is 204 km long, 1.5–6 km wide, and up to 1,208 m deep. Fjords are often separated from the open sea by a sill. They represent ancient erosion or tectonic valleys that underwent scouring by mountain glaciers, which deepened the floor, and that were subsequently inundated by postglacial transgression. Fjords are found only at high latitudes where Pleistocene glaciers formed or modern glaciers exist; they are found on the coasts of Norway, Spitsbergen, Greenland, the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, Novaia Zemlia, Taimyr, the Chukchi Peninsula, New Zealand, and Patagonia.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

fjord

[fyȯrd]
(geography)
A narrow, deep inlet of the sea between high cliffs or steep slopes. Also spelled fiord.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

fjord

, fiord
(esp on the coast of Norway) a long narrow inlet of the sea between high steep cliffs formed by glacial action
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
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Based on the data they collected, the scientists estimated the heat absorbed by the fjord was about 100 megawatt per square meter, which "corresponds to a 2-megawatt wind turbine sending electricity to a large heater at the bottom of the fjord all year round."
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