Lowell Observatory

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Lowell Observatory,

astronomical observatory located in Flagstaff, Ariz.; it was founded in 1894 by Percival LowellLowell, Percival,
1855–1916, American astronomer, b. Boston, grad. Harvard, 1876; brother of Abbott Lawrence Lowell and Amy Lowell. He visited Korea and Japan, where he acted as counselor and foreign secretary to the Korean Special Mission to the United States and wrote
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, the American astronomer who popularized the idea that Mars might support intelligent life. Its original telescope, still in operation, is a 24-in. (61-cm) refractor; also located at the Mars Hill site are the 13-in. (33-cm) A. Lawrence Lowell photographic camera used by Clyde TombaughTombaugh, Clyde William
, 1906–97, American astronomer, b. Streator, Ill. Although lacking formal training or a college degree, he was hired in 1929 as an assistant by the Lowell Observatory to continue the search for a planet beyond Neptune, which had been initiated by
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 when he discovered Pluto, and a 16-in. reflector used in the visitors' night viewing program. Located at the newer nearby Anderson Mesa station are 72-in. (183-cm), 42-in. (107-cm), and 31-in. (79-cm) reflecting telescopes and a 24-in. (60-cm) Schmidt telescope used in the search for asteroids and other near-earth objects. Anderson Mesa is also the site of the Navy Prototype Optical Interferometer program, a joint venture of the Lowell Observatory, the U.S. Naval Observatory, and the Naval Research Laboratory. Many discoveries of fundamental importance have been made by the observatory, especially by V. M. SlipherSlipher, Vesto Melvin
, 1875–1969, American astronomer, b. Mulberry, Ind. From 1901 he was at Lowell Observatory, Flagstaff, Ariz., where he served as director (1917–54).
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, its director from 1916 to 1954. By 1917 he had determined through spectroscopic analysis the radial velocitiesradial velocity,
in astronomy, the speed with which a star moves toward or away from the sun. It is determined from the red or blue shift in the star's spectrum.
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 of most spiral nebulaenebula
[Lat.,=mist], in astronomy, observed manifestation of a collection of highly rarefied gas and dust in interstellar space. Prior to the 1960s this term was also applied to bodies later discovered to be galaxies, e.g.
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 then known. His discovery that nearly all these nebulae, now known as galaxies, were apparently moving away from the earth led to Edwin Hubble'sHubble, Edwin Powell,
1889–1953, American astronomer, b. Marshfield, Mo. He did research (1914–17) at Yerkes Observatory, and joined (1919) the staff of Mt. Wilson Observatory, Pasadena, Calif., of which he became director. Building on V. M.
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 work and the discovery of the expanding universe. Beginning in 1905 the observatory made a concerted search for a transneptunian planet, which led to Tombaugh's discovery of Pluto in 1930. Principal research programs involve the discovery and determination of orbits for new asteroids, a search for nearby stars, and the measurement of light and motion of close double stars, nebulae, and other galactic objects.

Lowell Observatory

(loh -wĕl) A privately owned observatory at Flagstaff, Arizona, at an altitude of 2210 meters, set up by the US astronomer Percival Lowell in 1895. For many years it was the site of the huge Clark Telescope, a 24-inch (60.96-cm) refractor that was the largest of its generation. The US astronomer Clyde W. Tombaugh discovered the planet Pluto in 1930 while working at the Lowell Observatory. Currently the observatory's researchers work at Anderson Mesa, south of Flagstaff. But the Lowell Observatory is planned to be home to a 4-meter-class reflector, the Discovery Channel Telescope, which astronomers hope will be operational by about 2008.
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On October 19th, returning to his Flagstaff observatory after an exhausting barnstorming lecture tour of colleges in the Pacific Northwest and the West Coast, he and Slipher began a nightly vigil of the moons of Jupiter.