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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



(also talipes planus, platypodia), a deformity of the foot characterized by the flattening of the longitudinal arch or, more rarely, the transversal arch as a result of weakness in the ligament-muscle apparatus. Flatfoot is either longitudinal or transversal, depending on the arch affected. A combination of these types is possible and can be further complicated by the presence of other foot deformities. With flatfoot, the entire sole of the foot touches the floor.

While congenital flatfoot is rare, there are several types of acquired flatfoot classified according to the cause. These are static, traumatic, and paralytic. Paralytic flatfoot, which occurs with poliomyelitis, is rare. Observed more frequently is traumatic flatfoot, which develops after a fracture of the ankle or the bones of the foot. Static flatfoot is the most common form and is caused by various strains on the feet, especially during the growth period. In adults, flatfoot often develops after the prolonged carrying of heavy objects, after continuous standing, as for example in surgeons and barbers, or after considerable weight gain. When there are bone fractures of a lower extremity, flatfoot often develops on the side opposite the fracture. In a number of cases, flatfoot is asymptomatic. In other cases, the legs tire when walking, and there are pains in the tibia muscles. Preventive measures include exercise and proper selection of footwear. Treatment consists in a set of special exercises for the muscles of the feet and tibia, massage, and inclusion of therapeutic insoles in footwear.


Fridland, M. O. Ortopediia, 5th ed. Moscow, 1954.
Kuslik, M. I. “Ploskostopie.” In Mnogotomnoe rukovodstvo po khirurgii, vol. 12. Moscow, 1960.
Volkov, M. V., and V. D. Dedova. Detskaia ortopediia. Moscow, 1972.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Because flexible flat feet usually are asymptomatic, some authorities have difficulty classifying it as abnormal.
Different procedures are used to diagnose flat feet: physical examinations (mainly of the medial longitudinal arch and heel angle), photography, footprints, gait analysis/plantar pressures and pedobarograph measurements (2).
Furthermore, the similar fatigue response in both groups of individuals with normal and flat feet indicates a similar biomechanical behavior despite their different foot arch height.
Kulkuet also concluded that the immediate use of silicone insoles in people with flat feet moderating effect on the forces exerted on the foot of the kinematic data is [20,16].
"Sixty percent of children in Hong Kong have flat feet," said Raymond Ng, who founded Dr.
However the center of gravity moves inwards during stance, and the center of pressure is moved to the third toe in flat feet subjects.
Researchers at the University of Anglia reckon flat feet come about when tendons in the feet are weakened by proteins that occur naturally in the body.
The scientists, from the University of East Anglia, believe that flat feet come about when tendons in the feet are weakened by proteins that occur naturally in the body.
People are described as having flat feet when the arch is very low, sometimes to the point where the foot is literally flat to the ground.
"Many patients who have flat feet and knee pain are able to learn exercises and self-management techniques (stretching, strengthening, icing, and joint protection strategies)." These techniques, along with wearing proper footwear, will allow you to continue with tasks of daily living, such as climbing stairs and grocery shopping, as well as sports and other forms of activity and exercise.
The condition is particularly common in those with flat feet or high arches, or people who have gained weight, increased their physical activity, or wear shoes without heel or arch support.
It was once thought that flat feet denoted poor health and its absence indicated well-being and aristocracy (1).