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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



(also talipes planus, platypodia), a deformity of the foot characterized by the flattening of the longitudinal arch or, more rarely, the transversal arch as a result of weakness in the ligament-muscle apparatus. Flatfoot is either longitudinal or transversal, depending on the arch affected. A combination of these types is possible and can be further complicated by the presence of other foot deformities. With flatfoot, the entire sole of the foot touches the floor.

While congenital flatfoot is rare, there are several types of acquired flatfoot classified according to the cause. These are static, traumatic, and paralytic. Paralytic flatfoot, which occurs with poliomyelitis, is rare. Observed more frequently is traumatic flatfoot, which develops after a fracture of the ankle or the bones of the foot. Static flatfoot is the most common form and is caused by various strains on the feet, especially during the growth period. In adults, flatfoot often develops after the prolonged carrying of heavy objects, after continuous standing, as for example in surgeons and barbers, or after considerable weight gain. When there are bone fractures of a lower extremity, flatfoot often develops on the side opposite the fracture. In a number of cases, flatfoot is asymptomatic. In other cases, the legs tire when walking, and there are pains in the tibia muscles. Preventive measures include exercise and proper selection of footwear. Treatment consists in a set of special exercises for the muscles of the feet and tibia, massage, and inclusion of therapeutic insoles in footwear.


Fridland, M. O. Ortopediia, 5th ed. Moscow, 1954.
Kuslik, M. I. “Ploskostopie.” In Mnogotomnoe rukovodstvo po khirurgii, vol. 12. Moscow, 1960.
Volkov, M. V., and V. D. Dedova. Detskaia ortopediia. Moscow, 1972.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
The evaluation was carried out on 42 flat-foot children and 70 age-matched children as a control group.
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Then he endured a second operation to lengthen his heel cords so he can finally stand flat-footed.
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Mr Phillips said: "The council seemed to have been caught flat-footed by this incident and didn't appear to have a plan in place to deal with it.
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"Most women have flat feet, and most shoes are constructed from a high instep mold," explains Joseph, who is also flat-footed. That forces the foot unnaturally into the narrow part of the shoe and applies pressure to the top and the ball of the foot.
Nevertheless, a painting like Celebes, from 1921, which is exemplary of Ernst's immediate postwar period, while too weird and formally powerful to be considered derivative, still exists comfortably within the sign-painterly style that cuts an arc from de Chirico through Magritte to Kahlo and, later, Picabia, in all of whose hands this flat-footed idiom was put to telling use.
But he says that Asimo consumes extra energy because, for example, the robot is controlled by algorithms that require it to walk flat-footed, without rolling up on its toes as a person might when walking.
In my effort to retain what my students found valuable in Watt and to distance it from what they found problematic, I took a cue from Watt's reflections on The Rise of the Novel in "Flat-Footed and Fly-Blown: The Realities of Realism." Watt suggests that his study was informed by a confluence of theoretical elements, "formalism and phenomenology in a minor way, and Marxism, Freud, and the Frankfurt School in somewhat larger part" (153).