Those chemicals include nicotine, heavy metals, aldehydes, glycerin and flavoring substances
, he explained.
The pentyl valerate and ethyl valerate esters of 3-methyl valeric acid are used as a food additive in the synthetic flavoring substances
and adjuvant owing to its fruity flavors.
Betaine as one of the main flavoring substances
in aquatic products, mainly tasted sweet and also contributes to umami (Kani et al., 2008), its taste threshold is 2.5 mg/g.
He noted that read-across has been used most extensively in the analysis of flavoring substances
, which include 2,637 substances in the EU that the consumer is exposed to in relatively low amounts.
Today, there are nearly 7,000 flavoring substances
sold and used in e-cigarettes.
Worldwide, flavoring substances
are regulated and authorized for use by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) (Xu et al., 2013), and in Brazil by the National Sanitary Surveillance Agency (ANVISA) by Resolution RDC 2 of January 15th, 2007 (Brasil, 2007).
The flavoring substances
of e-cig liquids may be safe to eat or drink but not to inhale.
FEMA has declared more than 2,600 flavoring substances
The flavor materials include current materials cited in the FEMA GRAS lists through the GRAS 26 list and subsequent interim publications, the EU "Union" list of flavoring substances
that can be used in food, and the materials in the publications of the CoE, as well as information from the Chemical Sources Association and users and suppliers of materials.
"Generally, flavor manufacturers have reduced the amount of diacetyl they use, and, in some instances, diacetyl has been replaced with other, similar flavoring substances
," says John Hallagan of the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association.
Seven flavoring substances
are on the "wait and see" list, however.