Floral symmetry is an important trait both in taxonomy and in pollination systems, and normally zygomorphy is thought to be more specialized in pollination adaptations, since it restricts pollinator behaviors and can therefore increase pollination efficiency (Sargent, 2004; Gong & Huang, 2009).
Floral symmetry: pollinator-mediated stabilizing selection on flower size in bilateral species.
In this study, I use experimental manipulations of natural flowers to investigate the effects of floral symmetry on pollination in Bidens aristosa (Asterales: Asteraceae), the western tickseed.
Floral symmetry is associated with flower size and pollen production but not insect visitation rates in Geranium robertianum (Geraniaceae).
After assessing the images, the student uses the drop-down menus to select floral symmetry
, ovary position, numbers of parts in the various whorls, and fusion within or between whorls.
Diversity of cycloidea-like genes in Gesneriaceae in relation to floral symmetry. Annals of Botany 86: 167-176.
An apparent reversal in floral symmetry in the legume Cadia is a homeotic transformation.