Florence Nightingale

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Florence Nightingale
BirthplaceFlorence, Grand Duchy of Tuscany
Known for Pioneering modern nursing

Nightingale, Florence,

1820–1910, English nurse, the founder of modern nursing, b. Florence, Italy. Her life was dedicated to the care of the sick and war wounded and to the promotion of her vision of an effective public health-care system. In 1844 she began to visit hospitals; in 1850 she spent some time with the nursing Sisters of St. Vincent de Paul in Alexandria; and a year later she studied at the institute for Protestant deaconesses in Kaiserswerth, Germany. In 1854 she organized a unit of 38 woman nurses for service in the Crimean WarCrimean War
, 1853–56, war between Russia on the one hand and the Ottoman Empire, Great Britain, France, and Sardinia on the other. The causes of the conflict were inherent in the unsolved Eastern Question.
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; by the end of the war she had become a legend. With the testimonial fund collected for her war services she established (1860) the Nightingale School and Home for training nurses at St. Thomas's Hospital, London. She was called "The Lady with the Lamp" because she believed that a nurse's care was never ceasing, night or day; she taught that nursing was a noble profession, and she made it so. Florence Nightingale was the first woman to be given the British Order of Merit (1907). She wrote Notes … on Hospital Administration (1857), Notes on Hospitals (1859), Notes on Nursing (1860), and Notes on Nursing for the Labouring Classes (1861). After her death the Crimean Monument, Waterloo Place, London, was erected (1915) in her honor, and the Florence Nightingale International Foundation was inaugurated (1934).


See M. Vicinus and B. Nergaard, ed., Ever Yours, Florence Nightingale: Selected Letters (1989); biographies by C. Woodham-Smith (1950, 1983), E. Huxley (1975), B. M. Dossey (2000, repr. 2009), H. Small (2000), G. Gill (2004), M. Bostridge (2008), and L. McDonald (2010); studies by F. B. Smith (1982), M. E. Baly (1986, repr. 1998), and S. Dengler (1988).

Nightingale, Florence


Born May 12, 1820, in Florence; died Aug. 13, 1910, in London. English nurse and public figure.

Nightingale studied the organization of aid to the ill in the hospitals of Germany and France. During the Crimean War of 1853–56, she and 38 female aides organized the first service for the wounded in the British Army, which sharply reduced mortality in the field hospitals. In 1860, Nightingale organized the world’s first school for nurses at St. Thomas’ Hospital in London. Until 1872 she served as an expert for the British Army on matters of medical service for the sick and wounded. She wrote a number of works about the system of caring for the sick and wounded, including Notes on Nursing and Notes on Hospitals, which were translated into Russian.

In 1912 the International Red Cross Committee established a medal in her name as the highest award for nurses distinguishing themselves in caring for the sick and wounded. By 1974 the medal had been bestowed on 712 persons, among whom were 19 Soviet nurses and public health instructors, including Heroes of the Soviet Union Z. M. Tusnolobova-Marchenko, M. S. Shkarletova, I. N. Levchenko, and V. S. Kashcheeva.


Reitenbarg, D. “Florentsiia Naitingeil.” Meditsinskaia sestra, 1960, nos. 7–8.
Horndasch, M. Die Lady mit der Lampe. Bonn, 1948.
Bishop, W., and S. Goldle. A Biobibliography of Florence Nightingale. London, 1962.


Nightingale, Florence

(1820–1910) English nurse; founder of modern nursing. [Br. Hist.: NCE, 1943.]
See: Nursing
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