Florentine School

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Florentine School


a major Italian school of art that flourished between the 13th and 16th centuries, extending from the Early Renaissance to the crisis of Renaissance culture.

The founder of the Florentine school was Giotto, whose work placed Florence in the foreground of pre-Renaissance art. The work of his successors, who included Taddeo Gaddi and Maso di Banco, developed along the lines he had originated. However, toward the middle of the 14th century conciseness and clarity of form (as seen in the work of A. di Bonaiuti) disappeared, and a tendency toward linear and flat form became prevalent (Nardo di Cione and, occasionally, Orcagna). In the last 30 years of the 14th century a trend toward the international Gothic style prevailed (Agnolo Gaddi and Lorenzo Monaco).

A humanistic perception of the world was the basic artistic concept of the Florentine school during the Early Renaissance. A leading role in the development of Early Renaissance art in Italy was played by the architect Filippo Brunelleschi, the sculptor Donatello, and the painter Masaccio. Other major artists of the Early Renaissance were the architect Leon Battista Alberti, the architect and sculptor Michelozzo di Bartolommeo, and the sculptors Lorenzo Ghiberti, Luca della Robbia, A. Rossellino, Benedetto da Maiano, and Desiderio da Settignano. The quattrocento art of the Florentine school was marked by a consistent interest in realism and by a passionate concern for the theory and practice of perspective and other problems concerning the relationship between art and the empirical sciences (Verrocchio, A. del Castagno, Pollaiuolo, P. Uccello).

At the same time, 15th-century Florentine painting often recalled the Late Gothic decorative style (Gozzoli) and was concerned with mystical contemplation (Fra Angélico) and intimate human subjects (Fra Filippo Lippi). At the end of the 15th century democratic traditions were still preserved (Ghirlandaio), but aristocratic tendencies became dominant and developed at the court of Lorenzo de’ Medici (Botticelli, Filippo Lippi, and Piero di Cosimo). The work of Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo, transcending the bounds of the Florentine school, attained the highest artistic levels of the High Renaissance.

The stylistic integrity of Florentine art of this period (sculptor A. Sansovino, painters Fra Bartolommeo and Andrea del Sarto) came to an end when Florence became one of the centers of mannerism (architect and painter G. Vasari, the painters Bronzino, J. Pontormo, and Rosso Fiorentino). In the 17th century the Florentine school declined and had only a few artists deserving mention, such as C. Dolci and F. Furini.


Stegmann, C., and H. Geymüller. Arkhitektura Renessansa v Toskane, vols. 1–3. Moscow, 1936–41. (Translated from German.)
Berenson, B. Zhivopistsi italianskogo vozrozhdeniia. Moscow, 1965. (Translated from English.)
Antal, F. Florentine Painting and Its Social Background. London, 1948.
Freedberg, S. J. Painting of the High Renaissance in Rome and Florence, vols. 1–2, Cambridge, Mass., 1961.
Boskovits, M. La pittura florentina alla vigilia del rinascimento: 1370–1400, Florence, 1975.
See also references under ITALY, RENAISSANCE, and PROTORENAISSANCE.


References in periodicals archive ?
Announcement of competition: The rental of modular buildings for educational purposes- Florentine school in Hvaler Municipality.
These include Madonna And Child After Raphael, religious scenes from the Florentine School and a very unusual circular painting in the style of Botticelli.
Margarett went to Miss Porter's School and The Florentine School in Italy (after which she painted her flowered bedroom the color of cement and replaced the hunting prints with a newly purchased Mary Cassatt), made her debut, broke her engagement to a Morgan and began a career as a sculptor in conservative Boston, with its new subculture of women artists.
This attempt to interpret Bati as a central figure in the Florentine school between Corteccia and Marco da Gagliano figures as the most significant aspect of Gargiulo's introduction, and he justly criticizes previous attempts to relegate nearly all Florentine composers of the late sixteenth-century madrigal to a role as mere precursors of the more well-known composers of monody.
The sale, on April 5, includes some lovely work including Madonna and Child after Raphael, religious scenes from the Florentine School, a very unusual circular painting in the style of Botticelli, and SheepBy Pool by Henry Hillingford Parker, to name but a few.
In 1959 Eugenio Garin published a book on the aims of philosophical research, significantly entitled Philosophy as a Historical Knowledge, which greatly influenced the Florentine school of philosophy, and my university training was at that school.
5cm x 41cm (estimate pounds 800/1,200), an early 19th century English School oil on canvas of the departure of the Oxford Post Coach, 63cm x 75cm (pounds 1,000/1,500), an oil on canvas by a follower of Peter Paul Rubens, of The Massacre of the Innocents, probably painted in the 18th century, 68cm x 86cm (pounds 500/700) and a 19th century Florentine School oil after Raphael entitled Madonna della Sedia, 38cm diameter, which is framed in a 19th century Florentine carved giltwood replica of the original (pounds 1,000/1,500).
Rebhorn covers a number of prominent Renaissance thinkers in his discussion of the importance of merit to Christian humanists, but does not cite civic humanists like Machiavelli or others in the Florentine school.
Brown has chosen to tackle these questions in a precise, circumscribed way, beginning with the textual work of others and asking what that work might mean in Florence from the 1450s, when De rerum natura began to play an important role in Florentine intellectual life, until 1516-1517, when the work was prohibited in Florentine schools.