Florentine School


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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Florentine School

 

a major Italian school of art that flourished between the 13th and 16th centuries, extending from the Early Renaissance to the crisis of Renaissance culture.

The founder of the Florentine school was Giotto, whose work placed Florence in the foreground of pre-Renaissance art. The work of his successors, who included Taddeo Gaddi and Maso di Banco, developed along the lines he had originated. However, toward the middle of the 14th century conciseness and clarity of form (as seen in the work of A. di Bonaiuti) disappeared, and a tendency toward linear and flat form became prevalent (Nardo di Cione and, occasionally, Orcagna). In the last 30 years of the 14th century a trend toward the international Gothic style prevailed (Agnolo Gaddi and Lorenzo Monaco).

A humanistic perception of the world was the basic artistic concept of the Florentine school during the Early Renaissance. A leading role in the development of Early Renaissance art in Italy was played by the architect Filippo Brunelleschi, the sculptor Donatello, and the painter Masaccio. Other major artists of the Early Renaissance were the architect Leon Battista Alberti, the architect and sculptor Michelozzo di Bartolommeo, and the sculptors Lorenzo Ghiberti, Luca della Robbia, A. Rossellino, Benedetto da Maiano, and Desiderio da Settignano. The quattrocento art of the Florentine school was marked by a consistent interest in realism and by a passionate concern for the theory and practice of perspective and other problems concerning the relationship between art and the empirical sciences (Verrocchio, A. del Castagno, Pollaiuolo, P. Uccello).

At the same time, 15th-century Florentine painting often recalled the Late Gothic decorative style (Gozzoli) and was concerned with mystical contemplation (Fra Angélico) and intimate human subjects (Fra Filippo Lippi). At the end of the 15th century democratic traditions were still preserved (Ghirlandaio), but aristocratic tendencies became dominant and developed at the court of Lorenzo de’ Medici (Botticelli, Filippo Lippi, and Piero di Cosimo). The work of Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo, transcending the bounds of the Florentine school, attained the highest artistic levels of the High Renaissance.

The stylistic integrity of Florentine art of this period (sculptor A. Sansovino, painters Fra Bartolommeo and Andrea del Sarto) came to an end when Florence became one of the centers of mannerism (architect and painter G. Vasari, the painters Bronzino, J. Pontormo, and Rosso Fiorentino). In the 17th century the Florentine school declined and had only a few artists deserving mention, such as C. Dolci and F. Furini.

REFERENCES

Stegmann, C., and H. Geymüller. Arkhitektura Renessansa v Toskane, vols. 1–3. Moscow, 1936–41. (Translated from German.)
Berenson, B. Zhivopistsi italianskogo vozrozhdeniia. Moscow, 1965. (Translated from English.)
Antal, F. Florentine Painting and Its Social Background. London, 1948.
Freedberg, S. J. Painting of the High Renaissance in Rome and Florence, vols. 1–2, Cambridge, Mass., 1961.
Boskovits, M. La pittura florentina alla vigilia del rinascimento: 1370–1400, Florence, 1975.
See also references under ITALY, RENAISSANCE, and PROTORENAISSANCE.

V. D. DAZHINA

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Rooted in the Florentine school, his art was based on drawing, as opposed to the Venetian emphasis on color.
These include Madonna And Child After Raphael, religious scenes from the Florentine School and a very unusual circular painting in the style of Botticelli.
The exhibition, including Rembrandt's Belshazzar's Feast and other works by Renior, Warhol and Julian Opie, explores the way painters have represented faces, from the profile portraits of 15th Century Italy, such the Portrait of a Lady in Red (Florentine School, National Gallery), to the abstracted images of Frank Auerbach's Julia (Laing Art Gallery).
explores the way painters have represented faces from the profile portraits of 15th Century Italy, such the Portrait of a Lady in Red (Florentine School, National Gallery), to the abstracted images of Frank Auerbach's Julia (Laing Art Gallery).
Margarett went to Miss Porter's School and The Florentine School in Italy (after which she painted her flowered bedroom the color of cement and replaced the hunting prints with a newly purchased Mary Cassatt), made her debut, broke her engagement to a Morgan and began a career as a sculptor in conservative Boston, with its new subculture of women artists.
This attempt to interpret Bati as a central figure in the Florentine school between Corteccia and Marco da Gagliano figures as the most significant aspect of Gargiulo's introduction, and he justly criticizes previous attempts to relegate nearly all Florentine composers of the late sixteenth-century madrigal to a role as mere precursors of the more well-known composers of monody.
The sale, on April 5, includes some lovely work including Madonna and Child after Raphael, religious scenes from the Florentine School, a very unusual circular painting in the style of Botticelli, and SheepBy Pool by Henry Hillingford Parker, to name but a few.
The exhibition, including pieces by Rembrandt, Renior, Warhol and Julian Opie, explores the way painters have represented faces, from the profile portraits of 15th Century Italy, such the Portrait of a Lady in Red (Florentine School, National Gallery), to the abstracted images of Frank Auerbach's Julia (Laing Art Gallery).
It will explore the way painters have represented faces, from the profile portraits of 15th Century Italy, such the Portrait of a Lady in Red (Florentine School, National Gallery), to the contemporary, abstracted images of Frank Auerbach's Julia (Laing Art Gallery) and runs until July 11.
In 1959 Eugenio Garin published a book on the aims of philosophical research, significantly entitled Philosophy as a Historical Knowledge, which greatly influenced the Florentine school of philosophy, and my university training was at that school.
Among the paintings is an oil on canvas in the manner of Frederick Daniel Hardy (1826-1911) of boys swinging for apples in a barn, measuring 25.5cm x 41cm (estimate pounds 800/1,200), an early 19th century English School oil on canvas of the departure of the Oxford Post Coach, 63cm x 75cm (pounds 1,000/1,500), an oil on canvas by a follower of Peter Paul Rubens, of The Massacre of the Innocents, probably painted in the 18th century, 68cm x 86cm (pounds 500/700) and a 19th century Florentine School oil after Raphael entitled Madonna della Sedia, 38cm diameter, which is framed in a 19th century Florentine carved giltwood replica of the original (pounds 1,000/1,500).