constitution fully adequate to the exigencies of the
(390) Many Federalists countered that standing armies were "essentially necessary" not because of the threat of "an European war"--"[t]his I think is not very probable, provided the Foederal
Government is established," wrote one Federalist--but because of the "peculiar situation of the United States," surrounded by Indian nations?
33, he said that it would be federal usurpation if Congress attempted "to vary the law of descent in any State" or "abrogate a land tax imposed by the authority of a State." (19) "[T]he business of the foederal
constitution was not local, but general," Wilson said before Independence Hall, such that the Convention saw no need to specify when a jury trial would be required in noncriminal cases.
The European treaties and settlements were foedera and the American union was foederal
, derived from Latin foedus, for covenant or alliance.
require being mentioned"); Foederal
Resolved, That a state cannot, under the constitution of the United States, be made a defendant at the suit of any individual or individuals, and that the decision of the Supreme Foederal
Court, that a state may be placed in that situation, is incompatible with, and dangerous to the sovereignty and independence of the individual states, as the same tends to a general consolidation of these confederated republics.
(Richmond), April 23, 1788, reprinted in 9 DOCUMENTARY HISTORY, infra note 344, at 753, 754 (stating that under the Constitution, debtors "can no longer hope for paper money"); Commentary, The Protest of the Minority, Who Objected to Calling a Convention, for the Purpose of Adopting the Foederal