Non-Roman elites in the foederati
made their way into the upper levels of the Roman administration and military, while ordinary folk manned the army as foot soldiers.
They and other foederati
performed nonmilitary duties in times of peace, just as Roman legionaries did in peacetime.
The picture of the Ghassanids that emerges in the end is that of a refined society of sedentary and urbanized Arabs, who are zealous Christians of the Monophysite conviction, living in Oriens under the rule of their king, and who are Arab foederati
of the Byzantine empire and its supporters against the Sasanid Persians and their Lakhmid Arab supporters in al-Hira, and against the encroachments of the pastoralist Arab nomads of the Arabian peninsula.
In return for their safety, they would become Foederati
, allies that would be zealous defenders of the empire and would swell the ranks of the Legions.
435 Byzantines recognize Vandals as foederati
439 Vandals take Carthage 441-442 Ineffective Byzantine campaign to retake North Africa 476 Byzantines recognize Vandals as rulers of major parts of Africa 477-484 Huneric reigns 484-496 Gunthamund reigns 412 bishops 496-523 Thrasamund reigns 497 Thrasamund exiles seventy bishops 523-530 Hilderic reigns; has Catholic symphaties 525 Council at Carthage 60 bishops from all Africa except Byzacena 533 Vandals depose Hilderic; Gelimer becomes king 533-548 Byzantine campaign 200-250 bishops against the Vandals in North Africa 548 Byzantine suppression of Berber revolt 550 African council condemns Vigilius for his condemnation of the Three Chapters (The number of bishops is unknown).
After the disastrous defeat by the immigrant Visigoths at Adrianople (Edirne) in 378, the new Eastern emperor, Theodosius, was eventually able to light and manoeuvre them into signing a treaty in 382, settling them in the Balkans as `allies' (foederati
), since they could not possibly be expelled.
The sophisticated constitutional scheme defined by Theoderic and his Roman administrators--itself an elaboration of the conception underlying the old arrangements for the settlement of barbarian foederati
on Roman territory--was of its nature a fragile framework for the coexistence of the two peoples.
The reception of Germanic barbarians, first as laeti and then in 382 as foederati
, is shown to have produced the ironic result that the Roman policy of promoting hierarchical, stable, Germanic client states was realized within the empire, rather than outside it.
This meant that unlike Gregory of Tours, this early modern historian saw in this representative of Gallo-Roman elites a person who bridged the gap between the civic traditions of the late Roman Empire and the military tradition of barbarian soldiers and foederati
. In a sense, he was the scholar who set a longterm tradition that is used very actively in modern historical scholarship, that of significant similarity in the means of ruling between Gallo-Roman magnates and barbarian commanders like Childeric or Clovis (WERNER 1984, p.