Foeniculum


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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Foeniculum

 

(fennel), a genus of herbaceous biennial and perennial plants of the family Umbelliferae. The stem is rounded and branched. The leaves are pinnately compound, divided into long filamentous lobes with many-rayed (up to 20) umbels of yellow flowers and with fruits measuring 4–4.5 mm long. There are two species— F. vulgare and F. italica—which occur in the Mediterranean region. The erect, branching stem reaches a height of 2 m. There is a thick spindle-shaped taproot. The dark green leaves are alternate and pinnately compound. The inflorescence is a flat compound umbel; the tiny yellow flowers are cross-pollinating. The fruit, an elongate diachene, measures up to 14 mm long and 3–4 mm across; 1,000 achenes weigh 5–6 g. Fennel requires warmth, moisture, and high-quality chernozem soils. The petioles of F. italica, which grows mainly in Italy, form thick swellings at the base.

Fennel is an essential-oil and spice plant. The achenes contain up to 6.5 percent essential oil, which consists of 40–60 percent anethole. The essential oil is used in the perfume and soap industries, in medicine, and in veterinary medicine. The fruits are used to prepare fennel water, which is used to treat meteorism. The oil cake, which contains up to 20 percent protein, is used to fatten livestock.

Fennel has been cultivated since ancient times. It is grown on small areas in many European countries, as well as in the People’s Republic of China, Japan, India, northeastern Africa, and the USA. Fennel was first cultivated in Russia in the early 20th century (as an annual crop). In 1975 fennel occupied about 1,100 hectares (ha) in the USSR (Chernovtsy and Vinnitsa oblasts, Krasnodar Krai); the average yield of achenes was 10–14 quintals per ha. Fennel is planted in wide rows spaced 60 cm apart; the seeds are sown at a rate of 8–10 kg per ha and at depths of 2.5–3 cm. Care of the plantings entails three or four cultivations during vegetation, the application of fertilizer during the rosette and budding phases (up to 100 kg/ha of NPK), and destruction of weeds, pests, and causative agents of disease. Fennel is gathered by adapted grain-harvesting combines when approximately half the umbels have turned brown. After threshing, the seeds are dried to a moisture content of 13–14 percent. Insect pests of fennel include beetles of the genus Lethrus, wireworms, june beetles, turnip moths, and beet webworms; the most harmful disease is Cercospora infection.

REFERENCES

Shul’gin, G. T., and K. D. Zaloznyi. Kratkii spravochnik po efiromaslichnym kul’turam. Moscow, 1959.
Efiromaslichnye kul’tury. Moscow, 1963.

K. D. ZALOZNYI

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
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Contact and fumigant toxicity and repellency of Eucalyptus citriodora Hook., Eucalyptus staigeriana F., Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt and Foeniculum vulgare Mill.
Rajabipour, "Some Physical and Mechanical Properties of Fennel Seed (Foeniculum vulgare)," Journal of Agricultural Science, vol.
Effect of varying levels of nitrogen on growth, yield, quality and profitability of transplanted fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.).
7: Usage frequency of the most popular species in Er-Rich Rosmarinus officinalis 95 Thymus satureioides 74 Mentha suaveolens 63 Artemisia herba-alba 48 Foeniculum vulgare 39 Mentha pulegium 37 Peganum harmala 37 Chenopodium ambrosioides 25 Dittrichia viscosa 24 Citrullus colocynthis 23 Lactuca serriola 20 Juniperus phoenica 18 Capparis spinosa 14 Note: Table made from bar graph.
In the present research work, anti urease activity of traditional medicinal plants including Mentha piperita (pudina), Violo odorata (banafsha), Trachyspermum copiticum (ajwain), Metricarea chamomile (babuna) and Foeniculum vulgare (saunf) found in the vicinity of Rawalakot, Azad Kashmir were evaluated.
Most notably, Trigonella foenumgraecum (fenugreek), Foeniculum vulgare (fennel), Illicium verum (star anise) and Zingiber officinale (Ginger) have received recent research attention to complement their long, traditional history of use as herbal galactagogues.
Saba comorensis (Boji.) Fuya (SH) C Pichen Apiaceae Anethum graveolens (Mill) Lubicha (GU) H Foeniculum vulgare (Mill) Qushuwa (SH) H Asteraceae Vernonia amygdalina Del Banjaga (GU) H Bidens pilosa L.
Opuntia stricta [44] and for other plants as fennel (Foeniculum vulgare L.) and chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) [5].
Background: Foeniculum vulgare Mill (FV) has long been prescribed in traditional medicine due to its antioxidant anti-inflammatory properties.
Canonical correspondence ordination of seed bank at site Dingarh Fort area (CCA seed bank data) showing the relationships between species (triangles) and environmental variables (arrows) Eragrostis barreliri= Eba, Ochthochloa compressa=Oco; Cenchrus biflorus=Cbi; Cenchrus ciliaris =Cci; Aristida funiculata=Afu; Tribulus longipetalus=T\o; Sasuvium sasuvioides= Ssa; Mollugo cerviana =Mce; Indigofera hocstetteri= Iho; Gisekiapharnaceoides= Gph; Euphorbia prostrata=Epr, Foeniculum velgarus=Fve; Dipterygium gluacum=Dgl; Capparis decidua=Cde;Calligonum polygonoides =Cpo; Acacia nilotica=Ani; Fagonia cretica=Fin, Stipagrostis plumosa= Spl.