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in geology, bent or deformed arrangement of stratified rocks. These rocks may be of sedimentary or volcanic origin. Although stratified rocks are normally deposited on the earth's surface in horizontal layers (see stratificationstratification
(Lat.,=made in layers), layered structure formed by the deposition of sedimentary rocks. Changes between strata are interpreted as the result of fluctuations in the intensity and persistence of the depositional agent, e.g.
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), they are often found inclined or curved upward or downward. Arches, or upfolds, in stratified rock are called anticlines; depressions or downfolds, synclines. A third type of fold, the monocline, is a steplike structure sloping in one direction only. It is more correctly called a flexure and generally passes at depth into a fracture called a fault. An imaginary line drawn along the crest of an anticline or the trough of a syncline is its axis; the two sides curving away from the axis are the limbs. If both limbs, dipping in opposite directions, make the same angle with the horizontal, and if an imaginary axial plane passed through the axis and the center of the fold is vertical and divides the fold into two equal halves, the fold is symmetrical; if the limbs make unequal angles, and if the axial plane is inclined and does not bisect the fold, the fold is asymmetric. If one limb lies partly under the other, and the axial plane is inclined, the fold is overturned; if one limb lies almost completely under the other, and the axial plane is almost horizontal, the fold is recumbent. The axis of a fold cannot be indefinitely extended parallel to the horizontal, but plunges or emerges as the fold tapers off to a plane. Certain domes are very short anticlines with axes plunging at both ends, while some basins, similarly, are synclinal structures. Folds are commonly formed at some distance below the surface, but complete folds or portions of folds are exposed by erosion. Anticlines frequently have their crests eroded, till only the worn-down stumps of the two limbs remain. In a similar manner synclines may be eroded so that only the edges of the limbs project above the surface. The ridge crests of the Appalachian Mts. are eroded limbs of folds. The nature of the original fold can generally be determined from the arrangement of the outcrops, or exposed portions; thus, two outcrops dipping toward each other mark a syncline, and two outcrops dipping away from each other, an anticline. Folds on a grand scale, extending, for example, most of the length of a continent, are known as geosynclines and geanticlines. The immediate cause of folding is generally conceded to be the horizontal compression of the earth's surface, anticlines being squeezed up by this compression and synclines formed between anticlines. The problem of the ultimate cause of fold formation is similar to that of fault formation, both being earth movements involved in mountainmountain,
high land mass projecting conspicuously above its surroundings and usually of limited width at its summit. Although isolated mountains are not unusual, mountains commonly form ranges, comprising either a single complex ridge or a series of related ridges.
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 building and plate tectonicsplate tectonics,
theory that unifies many of the features and characteristics of continental drift and seafloor spreading into a coherent model and has revolutionized geologists' understanding of continents, ocean basins, mountains, and earth history.
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. Porous and permeable rocks of anticlines often contain oil and gas reservoirs. Organic remains of late Paleozoic tree fern swamps were converted to anthracite coal during the folding of the Appalachian Mts.



(also flexure), a tectonic structure in which a stratum or bed is strongly bent in two opposite directions. A fold consists of five elements, namely, two bends and three limbs. Two of the limbs are outside the bends; the third, or middle, limb connects the bends. Each element is described by its own bedding parameters, and the relationships between the parameters determine the many varieties of folds.

According to the bedding of the limbs, we distinguish among simple, plunging, and cross folds; according to the inclination of the hinges of the bends, folds are classified as vertical, inclined, and nonplunging (Figure 1). The size of a fold ranges from fractions of a meter to many kilometers. The inclination of the limbs ranges from barely discernible to vertical.

Figure 1.

Note on Figure 1. Location of the strata in the major types of folds:, (a) simple fold, (b) plunging fold, (c) cross fold, (d) nonplunging fold, (e) inclined fold, (f) vertical fold; the symbol Fold indicates that the strata are horizontal, the symbol Fold shows the direction in which the strata dip

Folds are found in cratons and folded regions. Especially large folds are found along the margins of cratons and the edges of syneclises. Some folds affect the accumulation of sediment and determine the distribution of the facies and thicknesses of sedimentary strata. Folds are sometimes associated with petroleum deposits.


A plication or doubling, as of various parts of the body such as membranes and other flat surfaces.
A bend in rock strata or other planar structure, usually produced by deformation; folds are recognized where layered rocks have been distorted into wavelike form.


1. a hollow in undulating terrain
2. Geology a bend in stratified rocks that results from movements within the earth's crust and produces such structures as anticlines and synclines
3. Anatomy another word for plica


a church or the members of it


An invisible line on a Web page that is at the bottom of the first full page on screen. See above the fold.
References in periodicals archive ?
In court, above left, Holly's mum Cheryl Foldes, above, her uncle Leslie Gregg incensed at Dembie's rambling statement and, below left, a prosecutor holds up the killer's seven inch combat knife.
Pierre Foldes, in the meantime, has apparently considered a lawsuit against the Raelians for the unauthorised use of his name for their cause.
Foldes, who pioneered a globally renowned technique to restore the clitorises to women who have undergone FGM, said the U.
It was signed by Claudio Abbado, Claudio Arrau, Daniel Barenboim, Clifford Curzon, Dean Dixon, Rudolf Firkusny, Marius Flothuis, Andor Foldes, Wolfgang Fortner, Pierre Fournier, Carlo-Maria Giulini, Friedrich Gulda, Bernard Haitink, Eugene Jochum, Paul Kletzki, Dr.
Strickland won 5-3 but yesterday, despite the first two losses, Williams hit back with a victory over Hungarian Vilmos Foldes by 5-2.
1 factor in getting my pin," said Foldes, who qualified with a group of three other people.
Su teoria descarta que el alfabeto latino fuera un prestamo del alfabeto griego, y mas bien demuestra que es un derivado del alfabeto etrusco temprano, el cual sirvio de enlace entre la escritura griega y la latina (En Foldes 1987: 175).
That's what teacher Nick Foldes is doing by moving from NatWest to Alliance & Leicester.
145 They wander at wil, and stray at pleasure, And to theyr foldes yead at their owne leasure.
Maydes and gentlewomen give to their favorites, as tokens of their love, little handkerchiefs of about three or four inches square wrought round about, and with a button or tassel at each corner, and a little one in the middle, with silke and threed; the best edged with a small gold, lace, or twist, which being doubled up in foure crosse foldes, so as the middle might be seen, gentlemen and others did usually weare them in their hatts as favors of their loves and mistresses.
Patient behaviors that incur costs in staff stress, time, or labor risk negative exchange, including ridicule (Foner 1994; Gubrium 1975), delay (Shield 1988), manhandling, forced discharge, physical or chemical restraint (Gubrium 1975), and other forms of verbal and physical abuse (Baltes, Burgess, and Stewart, cited in Hofland 1988; Foldes 1990; Kayser-Jones 1981; Pillemer and Moore 1989; Schnelle, Simmons, and Ory 1992).
Algunos maestros del piano como Andor Foldes, Karl Leimer y Walter Gieseking prefieren que esta lectura de la obra se haga alejada del instrumento.