folklore

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folklore,

the body of customs, legends, beliefs, and superstitions passed on by oral tradition. It includes folk dancesfolk dance,
primitive, tribal, or ethnic form of the dance, sometimes the survival of some ancient ceremony or festival. The term is used also to include characteristic national dances, country dances, and figure dances in costume to folk tunes.
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, folk songsfolk song,
music of anonymous composition, transmitted orally. The theory that folk songs were originally group compositions has been modified in recent studies. These assume that the germ of a folk melody is produced by an individual and altered in transmission into a
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, folk medicinefolk medicine,
methods of curing by means of healing objects, herbs, or animal parts; ceremony; conjuring, magic, or witchcraft; and other means apart from the formalized practice of medical science.
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 (the use of magical charms and herbs), and folktalesfolktale,
general term for any of numerous varieties of traditional narrative. The telling of stories appears to be a cultural universal, common to pre-industrial, ancient, and more modern and developed societies alike.
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 (myths, rhymes, and proverbs). The study of folklore emerged significantly in the 19th cent., partly out of the rise of European romanticism, with its interest in the past, and partly out of nationalism, with its stress on the indigenous. Today most folklorists and anthropologists regard folk customs, legends, and beliefs as an imaginative expression by a people of its desires, attitudes, and cultural values. Folk heroes (e.g., Frederick Barbarossa in Germany, the Cid in Spain, Robin Hood in England, Cuchulain in Ireland, Paul Bunyan in the United States, and Yü in China) have been said to reflect the civilization from which they sprang. Many theories have arisen to explain folk tales—Max Müller, a philologist, interpreted the legends as linguistic corruptions; Jakob Grimm saw them as corrupted cosmic allegories; the German school considered them as personified elements of nature; Edward Tylor and Andrew Lang held them to be survivals from a savage society; Freud and the psychoanalytical school found them fraught with sexual symbolism. Folklore has become increasingly important in the study of primitive societies and in understanding the history of mankind. Almost every country has a folklore society which collects, analyzes, and publishes folk material (e.g., in the United States the American Folklore Society publishes the Journal of American Folklore). For further information, see games, children'sgames, children's,
amusements or pastimes involving more than one child and in which there is some sort of formalized dramatic element, contest, or plot. Games are a cultural universal; for example, the string play called Cat's Cradle is common to cultures as varied as Eskimo,
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; monsters and imaginary beasts in folkloremonsters and imaginary beasts.
The mythologies and legends of ancient and modern cultures teem with an enormous variety of monsters and imaginary beasts. A great number of these are composites of different existing animals or of human beings and animals.
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; mythologymythology
[Greek,=the telling of stories], the entire body of myths in a given tradition, and the study of myths. Students of anthropology, folklore, and religion study myths in different ways, distinguishing them from various other forms of popular, often orally transmitted,
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.

Bibliography

See C. L. Daniels and C. M. Stevans, ed., Encyclopedia of Superstitions, Folklore, and the Occult Sciences of the World (1971); D. Emrich, Folklore on the American Land (1972); R. M. Dorson, ed., Folklore and Folklife: An Introduction (1972); T. P. Coffin and H. Cohen, Folklore from the Working Folk of America (1973); R. M. Dorson, America in Legend (1974); A. Dundes, Analytic Essays in Folklore (1975).

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/

folklore

1. the unwritten literature of a people as expressed in folk tales, proverbs, riddles, songs, etc.
2. the body of stories and legends attached to a particular place, group, activity, etc.
3. the anthropological discipline concerned with the study of folkloric materials
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
Folktales have had a significant role in highlighting such features and in reinforcing the sense of belonging among all communities."
Although Italo Calvino compiled his two hundred tales from a large number of sources, I have selected two representative folktales to be compared with the originals found in Giuseppe Pitre's Tuscan folk tale collection (Novelle popolari toscane [1885]) and in Gherardo Nerucci's collection of tales from Montale, a village near Pistoia (Sessanta novelle popolari montalesi [1880]).
If you recognize some of these stories, that's not unusual because the characters and themes in them--as in all fairy tales and folktales, no matter what their country of origin--are universal.
For complete class schedules and details on Forbes Town Center's Creativity Camp: Folktales Around the World, please call the Megaworld Lifestyle Malls Concierge at 709-9888, 709-0888, 0917-8380111 or visit www.megaworldlifestylemalls.com.
Chapter 1 illustrates the significance of folktales and narrators.
Thus teachers should exercise the professional diligence to research the origins of the folktales covered in their classrooms to ensure that they respect the original intention and purpose of the author to assure cultural responsiveness and appropriate interpreted meanings on the part of their students.
When asked why she thinks folktales are increasing in popularity, Ms.
Some of the verbal folklore genre include folk speech, traditional expression, riddles, oral poems, folktales (myth, legend, fairy tales), and folksongs.
In this never-before-translated book, Propp, a well-known expert on and contributor to the study of folklore with a special emphasis on the Russian tradition, examines the history and theories behind Russian folktales in general, summarizing and expounding upon his earlier works in the subject.
(4) As Bascom puts it, prose narrative is an appropriate term for the widespread category of verbal art which includes myths, legends, and folktales: folktales are prose narratives which are regarded as fiction, myths are prose narratives which are considered to be truthful accounts of what happened in the remote past, whereas legends are prose narratives which are regarded as true by the narrator and his audience, but they are set in a period considered less remote.
But she just cannot contain herself and enthusiastically shouts new endings to nostalgic folktales before the stories have a chance to develop.