football hooliganism

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football hooliganism

the violent crowd disorder, and associated football-related disturbances away from football grounds, which first attracted major public and media attention in the 1960s. After initial attempts to explain football violence in terms of the psychological characteristics of the ‘hooligans’ (Harrington, 1968), more recently a variety of sociological explanations have been suggested:
  1. opposition to the commercialization of football and the growing distance between players and the owners of clubs on the one hand, and ordinary working-class supporters on the other (Taylor, 1971);
  2. rather than ‘true’ violence, behaviour which appears disordered and threatening in fact often has its own ‘rules of disorder’: is ritualized (Marsh et al., 1978);
  3. deriving from LABELLING THEORY and DEVIANCE AMPLIFICATION (see Cohen, 1973), ‘hooliganism’ is seen as a media-amplified MORAL PANIC;
  4. since football violence has a long history increased modern attention to it is a reflection of a ‘civilizing’ tendency in society which has resulted in a lower societal tolerance of violence of the kind long associated with working-class conceptions of masculinity but now socially unacceptable (Dunning et al., 1988) (see also CIVILIZING PROCESS.

Arguably, each of these explanations has some justification.

References in periodicals archive ?
BOSSES at five-a-side football firm Goals Soccer Centre have uncovered "improper behaviour" over their accounts by a number of senior staff.
Jack Riding died after collapsing during a five-a-side football game ANSWERS have been demanded from a five-a-side football firm, following the death of a popular teenager.
DAVE Whelan is set to be left out of pocket after five-a-side football firm Powerleague announced a restructuring plan that involves shutting 13 sites.
It was also the haunt of Newcastle football firm 'The Gremlins and in the glory days queues lined Pudding Chare of people desperate to get in.
Elijah Wood plays an American who falls under the spell of a violent East London football firm, leading to sickening gang fights.
SHARES in five-a-side football firm Goals Soccer Centres slumped yesterday after the firm reported falling profits and said that turnaround plans are taking longer than expected.
FIVE-A-SIDE football firm Goals Soccer Centres has slumped into the red after seeing its market share hit by a rise in council-run artificial pitches.
Whatever happened, the net result is one large football firm won't get a huge cash payment, a second hasn't got a key target player on board--and one luckless player doesn't know whether he's coming or going.
She also spoke of the adrenaline rush she gets from being involved in a football firm and said she wouldn't run from trouble.
A member of the notorious football firm the Newcastle Gremlins, said how although Hutchison was never a member of a firm himself, he would regularly see him in the city on match days.

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