Millis credited Lynchburg Foundry with pioneering the basic cupola, carbide injection in the forehearth
and use of the shaking ladle.
To improve refractory life, he suggested that ductile iron foundries: lower operating temperature at metal tapping; minimize galvanized autobody scrap use (zinc penetration in the lining); allow for greater dwell time in forehearth
or ladle during desulfurization to collect more slag; submerge Mg during treatment to minimize formation of insoluble MgO; follow proper cold restart procedures when the lining has experienced thermal shock; upgrade SiC level in cupola refractory if there's a severe change in slag chemistry; make late additions to the iron with high-yield ferroalloys or direct wire injection; add SiC to the melt to reduce FeO and MnO (which cause chemical erosion of refractory); and modify sinter chemistry to include more Si by adjusting chemistry or by using a gray iron.
A distributing ladle receives its metal either directly from the cupola spout, melting furnace, forehearth
or duplexing furnace.
One of the foremost suppliers of glass technology, with more than one hundred years of experience, BDF Industries SPA is the unique supplier able to propose a complete offer for the hollow-glass making industry: from the design and production of furnaces, forehearths
and IS machines to complete turn-key plants.
Industrial glass forming is a complex sequence of unit processes that includes melting and refining the raw material, cooling and conditioning the molten glass in forehearths
, transitioning from a continuous glass stream to discrete gobs in the feeder, and the actual forming processes in the individual section (IS) machine.
Both the Forehearths
are LPG fired with KW-81 feeders.