Foreign Bodies


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Foreign Bodies

 

foreign objects that penetrate the body from without. They cause changes in the body that vary with their size, shape, physical and chemical properties, presence of bacterial flora, and mechanism of their entry and location. Chemically active foreign bodies (for example, lead of indelible pencils) may produce an inflammatory reaction in the surrounding tissues and even cause necrosis. In blind fragmentation and bullet wounds, pieces of clothing, dirt, and so forth may lodge in the tissues along with the metal of the projectile. Bacterially contaminated foreign bodies cause suppuration. Foreign bodies may cause pain by pressing against nerves and result in vascular hemorrhage or perforation, but they can also remain in the body for many years without complications. In daily life, foreign bodies occur most frequently in children who swallow, inhale, and stuff into the nose and ear all kinds of objects. Adults accidentally swallow meat and fish bones and sometimes (while asleep or in a faint) their dentures.

Foreign bodies are removed from the respiratory tract of the pharynx and esophagus mainly with an endoscope. In the stomach and intestine, foreign bodies, even those with sharp edges, often move along harmlessly during peristaltic contractions and leave the body naturally. A type of food that coats (gruel, puree, fruit jelly, milk) is prescribed in such cases, and the movement of the foreign body is followed by X-rays. Foreign bodies in the eyes are removed with a tampon or magnet. Attempts by the individual to extract foreign objects by himself may result in rupture of the eardrum, injury to the cornea, and so forth.

Foreign bodies inserted into the body for therapeutic purposes for a certain period of time (pin to join together bone fragments after a fracture, cardiac pacemaker in heart block) or permanently (vascular prosthesis, cardiac valve) are in a class by themselves. Such foreign bodies should not irritate live tissues. The surfaces of prostheses coming in contact with blood should be absolutely smooth so as not to cause the formation of thrombi in the blood.

E. G. DEKHTIAR

References in periodicals archive ?
The best approach to intravascular foreign bodies is to retrieve it, although leaving harmless foreign bodies untouched, mobilizing the foreign body to a less risky location, or relocation are other methods in practice (8, 13).
The extracted foreign bodies included pebbles, coins, and bottle caps, Dr.
Regarding the types of foreign bodies, an organic material was observed in 27 (61.4%) patients and a non organic material in 9 (20.5%) (Table 2).
Metallic foreign bodies in the thoracic wall are rare and are usually related to a history of trauma.
This is very important if the FB is sharp and the duration of impact is long, as both these conditions are risk factors for development of complications, such as, ulcers (21.2%), lacerations (14.9%), erosions (12.0%), and perforation (1.9%), following FB ingestion.2 Some writers stress that sharp foreign bodies should be removed within 24 hours of ingestion.
Most of the foreign bodies such as fishbone, tooth, sewing needle, and chicken bone that are accidentally swallowed, are excreted spontaneously through anus.
The knee is under constant movement, usually foreign bodies migrate intra-articularly and cause symptoms.
Foreign body ingestion is a potentially serious problem with a peak incidence in children aged six months to three years and involving both sexes.1 Majority of the patients who have swallowed foreign bodies remain asymptomatic (90%) and these foreign bodies pass through body spontaneously.2 Rest can be removed endoscopically.
Coins were the most common foreign bodies encountered (32.8%) followed by button batteries (31%).
The most frequent foreign body, i.e., a piece of paper, was found in 18 (39.1%) children; other foreign bodies included beads, various types of plastic pieces, pieces of crayon, and food.
Bresslar in his work stated that 11% of emergencies in Otorhinolaryngology casualty were foreign bodies. [1] Ear, nose and throat are the most common sites of foreign body lodgement.

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